As causas de mortes evitáveis ou reduzíveis são definidas como aquelas preveníveis, total ou parcialmente, por ações efetivas dos serviços de saúde que estejam acessíveis em um determinado local e época. Essas causas devem ser revisadas à luz da evolução do conhecimento e tecnologia para prática da atenção à saúde. Portanto, este estudo está fundamentado em uma revisão da literatura referente à base conceitual e empírica das listas de causas de morte evitáveis, publicadas entre 1975 e 2004, e nas reflexões de um grupo de trabalho organizado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. O artigo propõe duas listas brasileiras desses eventos-para menores de cinco anos; e para pessoas com cinco ou mais anos de idade-, tendo por referência a tecnologia disponível no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Embora esse debate se encontre em estágio inicial, seu aprofundamento parece promissor para o desenvolvimento metodológico do monitoramento e avaliação de desempenho da atenção à saúde no Brasil. Palavras-chave: causas de morte evitáveis; desempenho dos serviços de saúde; evitabilidade; mortes em menores de cinco anos de idade.
ABSTRACT:Objective: To analyze under-5 mortality rates and leading causes in Brazil and states in 1990 and 2015, using the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2015 estimates. Methods: The main sources of data for all-causes under-5 mortality and live births estimates were the mortality information system, surveys, and censuses. Proportions and rates per 1,000 live births (LB) were calculated for total deaths and leading causes. Results: Estimates of under-5 deaths in Brazil were 191,505 in 1990, and 51,226 in 2015, 90% of which were infant deaths. The rates per 1,000 LB showed a reduction of 67.6% from 1990 to 2015, achieving the proposed target established by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The reduction generally was more than 60% in states, with a faster reduction in the poorest Northeast region. The ratio of the highest and lowest rates in the states decreased from 4.9 in 1990 to 2.3 in 2015, indicating a reduction in socioeconomic regional disparities. Although prematurity showed a 72% reduction, it still remains as the leading cause of death (COD), followed by diarrheal diseases in 1990, and congenital anomalies, birth asphyxia and septicemia neonatal in 2015. Conclusion: Under-5 mortality has decreased over the past 25 years, with reduction of regional disparities. However, pregnancy and childbirth-related causes remain as major causes of death, together with congenital anomalies. Intersectoral and specific public health policies must be continued to improve living conditions and health care in order to achieve further reduction of under-5 mortality rates in Brazil.
RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar as tendências de mortalidade por doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT) no período de 2000 a 2013 e a probabilidade de morte até 2025. Método: Análise de série temporal de mortalidade das DCNT (doenças cardiovasculares, câncer, diabetes e doenças respiratórias crônicas), com correções para causas mal definidas e sub-registro de óbitos, e a probabilidade de morte por essas doenças. Resultados: Houve declínio médio de 2,5% ao ano no conjunto das quatro principais DCNT no Brasil entre 2000 e 2013, em todas as regiões e unidades federativas. A probabilidade de morte foi reduzida de 30% em 2000 para 26,1% em 2013, e estima-se que caia para 20,5% em 2025. Conclusões: Dada a tendência de queda, prevê-se que o Brasil atinja a meta global de redução de 25% até 2025.
OBJECTIVE To identify associations of chronic back pain with sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyles, body mass index, self-reported chronic diseases and health assessment, according to sex.METHODS We analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Survey, estimated the prevalence and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of chronic back pain, according to selected variables and performed adjustment by age and education.RESULTS 18.5% of the Brazilian population reported chronic back pain, 15.5% (95%CI 14.7–16.4) of them being men and 21.1% (95%CI 20.2–22.0) being women. The characteristics that remained associated and statistically significant (p < 0.05) after adjustment, in men, were: age group, higher in men with 65 years or older (ORa = 6.06); low education level; living in rural area; history of smoking, high salt intake, increase in the time of heavy physical activity at work and at home; being overweight (ORa = 1.18) or obese (ORa = 1.26); diagnostic of hypertension (ORa = 1.42), high cholesterol (ORa = 1.60); and worse health assessment in comparison with very good (good [ORa = 1.48]; regular [ORa = 3.22]; poor [ORa = 5.00], very poor [ORa = 8.60]). Among women, they were: increase with age, higher among women with 55-64 years (ORa = 3.64); low education level; history of smoking, regular candy consumption, high salt intake, heavy physical activity at work and at home and increase in the time of these activities; being overweight (ORa = 1.23) or obese (ORa = 1.32); diagnosis of hypertension (ORa = 1.50), high cholesterol (ORa = 1.84); and worse health assessment than very good (good [ORa = 1.43]; regular [ORa = 3.16]; poor [ORa = 5.44], very poor [ORa = 8.19]).CONCLUSIONS Our findings point out differences by sex and contribute to the knowledge of the panorama of chronic back pain, which, besides affecting individuals, generate negative socioeconomic impacts, by causing work-related disabilities and hindering everyday activities.
Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods: In a convenience sampling study, data were collected from 1701 individuals, aged 18 or above; 75.54% female participants; 60.73% T1D and 30.75% T2D, between April 22nd and May 4th, using an anonymous and untraceable survey containing 20 multiple choice questions (socio-demographic; health status and habits of life during COVID-19 pandemic).Relationship between variables was established using the multiple correspondence analysis technique.Results: 95.1% of respondents reduced their frequency of going outside of their homes; among those who monitored blood glucose at home during the pandemic (91.5%), the majority (59.4%) experienced an increase, a decrease or a higher variability in glucose levels; 38.4% postponed their medical appointments and/or routine examinations; and 59.5% reduced their physical activity. T1D, the youngest group, was more susceptible to pre-
Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested for antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, spermicidal, embriotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities are cited from the 121 references consulted.
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