This study compared the levels of cell proliferation and peroxisome proliferation in rodent liver with tumor incidence, to provide more information on the relationship between these events following chronic exposure. Fischer 344 rats were treated with 0, 100, 500, 2500, or 12,500 ppm DEHP, and B6C3F1 mice were treated with 0, 100, 500, 1500, or 6000 ppm DEHP in the diet for up to 104 weeks. Additional groups of rats and mice received the highest concentration for 78 weeks and then the control diet for an additional 26 weeks (recovery groups). Animals were terminated at weeks 79 and 105 for histopathologic examination. Elevated palmitoyl CoA oxidation activity and higher liver-to-body weight ratios were observed for the 2500- and 12,500-ppm groups of rats, and for the 500-, 1500-, and 6000-ppm groups of mice at Week 105. No increase in palmitoyl CoA oxidation activity was evident in the recovery group, and relative liver weights were near control levels following recovery. No hepatic cell proliferation was detected at Weeks 79 or 105 in either species although preliminary data indicated that cell proliferation did occur within the first 13 weeks of exposure. A significantly higher incidence of hepatocellular tumors was only observed for the 2500- and 12,500-ppm group and its recovery group of rats, and for the 500-, 1500-, and 6000-ppm groups and the recovery group of mice. The tumor incidences were reduced for the recovery groups compared with the groups fed DEHP continuously for 104 weeks. The data indicate that high levels of peroxisome proliferation and hepatomegaly are associated with DEHP hepatocarcinogenesis in rodent liver, and that the tumorigenic process may be arrested by cessation of DEHP treatment, suggesting that extended treatment with DEHP acts to promote tumor growth.
The Mouse Lymphoma Assay (MLA) Workgroup of the International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT), comprised of experts from Japan, Europe, and the United States, met on August 29, 2003, in Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom. This meeting of the MLA Workgroup was devoted to reaching a consensus on the appropriate approach to data evaluation and on acceptance criteria for both the positive and negative/vehicle controls. The Workgroup reached consensus on the acceptance criteria for both the agar and microwell versions of the MLA. Recommendations include acceptable ranges for mutant frequency, cloning efficiency, and suspension growth of the negative/vehicle controls and on criteria to define an acceptable positive control response. The recommendation for the determination of a positive/negative test chemical response includes both the requirement that the response exceeds a defined value [the global evaluation factor (GEF)] and that there also be a positive dose-response (evaluated by an appropriate statistical method).
The Mouse Lymphoma Assay (MLA) Workgroup of the International Workshop on Genotoxicity Test Procedures held a second harmonization meeting just prior to the U.S. Environmental Mutagen Society Meeting in New Orleans, LA, in April 2000. The discussion focused on several important aspects of the MLA, including: 1) cytotoxicity measures and their determination, 2) use of a 24-hr treatment, 3) the ability of the assay to detect aneugens, and 4) concentration selection. Prior to the meeting the group developed Microsoft Excel Workbooks for data entry. Ten laboratories entered their data into the workbooks (primarily as coded chemicals). The Excel Workbooks were used to facilitate data analysis by generating an extensive set of graphs that were evaluated by the meeting participants. Based on the Workgroup's previous agreement that a single cytotoxicity measure should be established for both the microwell and soft agar versions of the assay, the Workgroup analyzed the submitted data and unanimously agreed that the relative total growth (RTG) should be used as the cytotoxicity measure for concentration selection and data evaluation. The Workgroup also agreed that the various cytotoxicity measures should be calculated using the same methods regardless of whether the soft agar or microwell version of the assay was used. In the absence of sufficient data to make a definitive determination, the Workgroup continued to endorse the International Committee on Harmonization recommendation for the use of 24-hr treatment and made some specific 24-hr treatment protocol recommendations. The Workgroup recognized the ability of the MLA to detect at least some aneugens and also developed general guidance and requirements for appropriate concentration selection.
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