BackgroundSaturated fatty acids can be detrimental to human health and have received considerable attention in recent years. Several studies using taurine breeds showed the existence of genetic variability and thus the possibility of genetic improvement of the fatty acid profile in beef. This study identified the regions of the genome associated with saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and n-6 to n-3 ratios in the Longissimus thoracis of Nellore finished in feedlot, using the single-step method.ResultsThe results showed that 115 windows explain more than 1 % of the additive genetic variance for the 22 studied fatty acids. Thirty-one genomic regions that explain more than 1 % of the additive genetic variance were observed for total saturated fatty acids, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0 and C18:0. Nineteen genomic regions, distributed in sixteen different chromosomes accounted for more than 1 % of the additive genetic variance for the monounsaturated fatty acids, such as the sum of monounsaturated fatty acids, C14:1 cis-9, C18:1 trans-11, C18:1 cis-9, and C18:1 trans-9. Forty genomic regions explained more than 1 % of the additive variance for the polyunsaturated fatty acids group, which are related to the total polyunsaturated fatty acids, C20:4 n-6, C18:2 cis-9 cis12 n-6, C18:3 n-3, C18:3 n-6, C22:6 n-3 and C20:3 n-6 cis-8 cis-11 cis-14. Twenty-one genomic regions accounted for more than 1 % of the genetic variance for the group of omega-3, omega-6 and the n-6:n-3 ratio.ConclusionsThe identification of such regions and the respective candidate genes, such as ELOVL5, ESSRG, PCYT1A and genes of the ABC group (ABC5, ABC6 and ABC10), should contribute to form a genetic basis of the fatty acid profile of Nellore (Bos indicus) beef, contributing to better selection of the traits associated with improving human health.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-016-2511-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
BackgroundFatty acid type in beef can be detrimental to human health and has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes in longissimus thoracis muscle of 48 Nellore young bulls with extreme phenotypes for fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat by RNA-seq technique.ResultsDifferential expression analyses between animals with extreme phenotype for fatty acid composition showed a total of 13 differentially expressed genes for myristic (C14:0), 35 for palmitic (C16:0), 187 for stearic (C18:0), 371 for oleic (C18:1, cis-9), 24 for conjugated linoleic (C18:2 cis-9, trans11, CLA), 89 for linoleic (C18:2 cis-9,12 n6), and 110 genes for α-linolenic (C18:3 n3) fatty acids. For the respective sums of the individual fatty acids, 51 differentially expressed genes for saturated fatty acids (SFA), 336 for monounsaturated (MUFA), 131 for polyunsaturated (PUFA), 92 for PUFA/SFA ratio, 55 for ω3, 627 for ω6, and 22 for ω6/ω3 ratio were identified. Functional annotation analyses identified several genes associated with fatty acid metabolism, such as those involved in intra and extra-cellular transport of fatty acid synthesis precursors in intramuscular fat of longissimus thoracis muscle. Some of them must be highlighted, such as: ACSM3 and ACSS1 genes, which work as a precursor in fatty acid synthesis; DGAT2 gene that acts in the deposition of saturated fat in the adipose tissue; GPP and LPL genes that support the synthesis of insulin, stimulating both the glucose synthesis and the amino acids entry into the cells; and the BDH1 gene, which is responsible for the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies used in the synthesis of ATP.ConclusionSeveral genes related to lipid metabolism and fatty acid composition were identified. These findings must contribute to the elucidation of the genetic basis to improve Nellore meat quality traits, with emphasis on human health. Additionally, it can also contribute to improve the knowledge of fatty acid biosynthesis and the selection of animals with better nutritional quality.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-016-3232-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the copy number variation regions (CNVRs) and fatty acid profile phenotypes for saturated (SFA), monosaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), ω6 and ω3 fatty acids, PUFA/SFA and ω6/ω3 ratios, as well as for their sums, in Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). A total of 963 males were finished in feedlot and slaughtered with approximately 2 years of age. Animals were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). The copy number variation (CNV) detection was performed using the PennCNV algorithm. Log R ratio (LRR) and allele B frequency (BAF) were used to estimate the CNVs. The association analyses were done using the CNVRuler software and applying a logistic regression model. The phenotype was adjusted using a linear model considering the fixed effects of contemporary group and the animal age at slaughter. The fatty acid profile was analyzed on samples of longissimus thoracis muscle using gas chromatography with a 100-m capillary column. For the association analysis, the adjusted phenotypic values were considered for the traits, while the data was adjusted for the effects of the farm and year of birth, management groups at birth, weaning, and superannuation. A total of 186 CNVRs were significant for SFA (43), MUFA (42), PUFA (66), and omega fatty acid (35) groups, totaling 278 known genes. On the basis of the results, several genes were associated with several fatty acids of different saturations. Olfactory receptor genes were associated with C12:0, C14:0, and C18:0 fatty acids. The SAMD8 and BSCL2 genes, both related to lipid metabolic process, were associated with C12:0. The RAPGEF6 gene was found to be associated with C18:2 cis-9 cis-12 n-6, and its function is related to regulation of GTPase activity. Among the results, we highlighted the olfactory receptor activity (GO:0004984), G-protein-coupled receptor activity (GO:0004930), potassium:proton antiporter activity (GO:0015386), sodium:proton antiporter activity (GO:0015385), and odorant-binding (GO:0005549) molecular functions. A large number of genes associated with fatty acid profile within the CNVRs were identified in this study. These findings must contribute to better elucidate the genetic mechanism underlying the fatty acid profile of intramuscular fat in Nellore cattle.
The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic-quantitative relationships between the beef fatty acid profile with the carcass and meat traits of Nellore cattle. A total of 1826 bulls finished in feedlot conditions and slaughtered at 24 months of age on average were used. The following carcass and meat traits were analysed: subcutaneous fat thickness (BF), shear force (SF) and total intramuscular fat (IMF). The fatty acid (FA) profile of the Longissimus thoracis samples was determined. Twenty-five FAs (18 individuals and seven groups of FAs) were selected due to their importance for human health. The animals were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip and, after quality control for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only 470,007 SNPs from 1556 samples remained. The model included the random genetic additive direct effect, the fixed effect of the contemporary group and the animal's slaughter age as a covariable. The (co)variances and genetic parameters were estimated using the REML method, considering an animal model (single-step GBLUP). A total of 25 multi-trait analyses, with four traits, were performed considering SF, BF and IMF plus each individual FA. The heritability estimates for individual saturated fatty acids (SFA) varied from 0.06 to 0.65, for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) it varied from 0.02 to 0.14 and for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) it ranged from 0.05 to 0.68. The heritability estimates for Omega 3, Omega 6, SFA, MUFA and PUFA sum were low to moderate, varying from 0.09 to 0.20. The carcass and meat traits, SF (0.06) and IMF (0.07), had low heritability estimates, while BF (0.17) was moderate. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with BF were 0.04, 0.64 and -0.41, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with SF were 0.29, -0.06 and -0.04, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with IMF were 0.24, 0.90 and -0.67, respectively. The selection to improve meat tenderness in Nellore cattle should not change the fatty acid composition in beef, so it is possible to improve this attribute without affecting the nutritional beef quality in zebu breeds. However, selection for increased deposition of subcutaneous fat thickness and especially the percentage of intramuscular fat should lead to changes in the fat composition, highlighting a genetic antagonism between meat nutritional value and acceptability by the consumer.
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for different precocious calving criteria and their relationship with reproductive, growth, carcass and feed efficiency in Nellore cattle using the single‐step genomic BLUP. The reproductive traits used were probability of precocious calving (PPC) at 24 (PPC24), 26 (PPC26), 28 (PPC28) and 30 (PPC30) months of age, stayability (STAY) and scrotal circumference at 455 days of age (SC455). Growth traits such as weights at 240 (W240) and 455 (W455) days of age and adult weight (AW) were used. Rib eye area (REA), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), rump fat thickness (RFT) and residual feed intake (RFI) were included in the analyses. The estimation of genetic parameters was performed using a bi‐trait threshold model including genomic information in a single‐step approach. Heritability for PPC traits was moderate to high (0.29–0.56) with highest estimates for PPC24 (0.56) and PPC26 (0.50). Genetic correlation estimates between PPC and STAY weakened as a function of calving age. Correlation with SC455, growth and carcass traits were low (0.25–0.31; −0.22 to 0.04; −0.09 to 0.18, respectively), the same occurs with RFI (−0.09 to 0.08), this suggests independence between female sexual precocity and feed efficiency traits. The results of this study encourage the use of PPC traits in Nellore cattle because the selection for such trait would not have a negative impact on reproductive, growth, carcass and feed efficiency indicator traits. Stayability for sexual precocious heifers (PPC24 and PPC26) must be redefined to avoid incorrectly phenotype assignment.
BackgroundThe aim of this study was to assess genome-wide autozygosity in a Nellore cattle population and to characterize ROH patterns and autozygosity islands that may have occurred due to selection within its lineages. It attempts also to compare estimates of inbreeding calculated from ROH (FROH), genomic relationship matrix (FGRM), and pedigree-based coefficient (FPED).ResultsThe average number of ROH per animal was 55.15 ± 13.01 with an average size of 3.24 Mb. The Nellore genome is composed mostly by a high number of shorter segments accounting for 78% of all ROH, although the proportion of the genome covered by them was relatively small. The genome autozygosity proportion indicates moderate to high inbreeding levels for classical standards, with an average value of 7.15% (178.70 Mb). The average of FPED and FROH, and their correlations (− 0.05 to 0.26) were low. Estimates of correlation between FGRM-FPED was zero, while the correlation (− 0.01 to − 0.07) between FGRM-FROH decreased as a function of ROH length, except for FROH > 8Mb (− 0.03). Overall, inbreeding coefficients were not high for the genotyped animals. Autozygosity islands were evident across the genome (n = 62) and their genomic location did not largely differ within lineages. Enriched terms (p < 0.01) associated with defense response to bacteria (GO:0042742), immune complex reaction (GO:0045647), pregnancy-associated glycoproteins genes (GO:0030163), and organism growth (GO:0040014) were described within the autozygotic islands.ConclusionsLow FPED-FROH correlation estimates indicate that FPED is not the most suitable method for capturing ancient inbreeding when the pedigree does not extend back many generations and FROH should be used instead. Enriched terms (p < 0.01) suggest a strong selection for immune response. Non-overlapping islands within the lineages greatly explain the mechanism underlying selection for functionally important traits in Nellore cattle.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s12864-018-5060-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The objective of this study was to compare SNP-BLUP, BayesCπ, BayesC and Bayesian Lasso methodologies to predict the direct genomic value for saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acid profile, omega 3 and 6 in the Longissimus thoracis muscle of Nellore cattle finished in feedlot. A total of 963 Nellore bulls with phenotype for fatty acid profiles, were genotyped using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) with 777,962 SNP. The predictive ability was evaluated using cross validation. To compare the methodologies, the correlation between DGV and pseudo-phenotypes was calculated. The accuracy varied from -0.40 to 0.62. Our results indicate that none of the methods excelled in terms of accuracy, however, the SNP-BLUP method allows obtaining less biased genomic evaluations, thereby; this method is more feasible when taking into account the analyses' operating cost. Despite the lowest bias observed for EBV, the adjusted phenotype is the preferred pseudophenotype considering the genomic prediction accuracies regarding the context of the present study.
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