IntroductionCoronary artery bypass grafting is a safe procedure performed worldwide with low rates of mortality and morbidity in general population.ObjectiveTo investigate risk factors for mortality of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.MethodsA total of 1,628 consecutive patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting were retrospectively studied from December 1999 to February 2012. Data analysis involved paired Student t test, Mann-Whitney test and Fisher’s exact test for the categorical data. Logistic regression, Odds Ratio and 95%CI were used for definition of risk factors for mortality.ResultsOf a total of 1,628 patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, 141 (8.7%) died. The following risk factors for mortality were identified after logistic regression: dialysis (OR=7.61; 95%CI 3.58-16.20), neurologic dysfunction type I (OR=4.42; 95%CI 2.48-7.81), use of IABP (OR=3.38; 95%CI 1.98-5.79), cardiopulmonary bypass time (OR=3.09; 95%CI 2.04-4.68), serum creatinine on admission and peak values > 0.4mg/dL (OR=2.67; 95%CI 1.79-4.00), age > 65 years (OR=2.31; 95%CI 1.55-3.44), and time between hospital admission and and surgical procedure (OR=1.53; 95%CI 1.03-2.27).ConclusionDialysis, type I neurologic dysfunction, use of IABP, cardiopulmonary bypass time (> 115 minutes), serum creatinine on admission and peak values>0.4mg/dL, age > 65 years and time between hospital admission and surgical procedure were considered as risk factors for mortality in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.
The entry of sodium and calcium play a key effect on myocyte subjected to cardiac arrest by hyperkalemia. They cause cell swelling, acidosis, consumption of adenosine triphosphate and trigger programmed cell death. Cardiac arrest caused by hypocalcemia maintains intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels, improves diastolic performance and reduces oxygen consumption, which can be translated into better protection to myocyte injury induced by cardiac arrest.
SummaryBackground: The acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disease for which there is no accepted standard definition nowadays. The Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) represents an attempt to standardize the criteria for diagnosis and staging of acute renal dysfunction based on recently published RIFLE criteria, that means, (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease).
IntroductionSolutions that cause elective cardiac arrest are constantly evolving, but the ideal compound has not yet been found. The authors compare a new cardioplegic solution with histidine-tryptophan-glutamate (Group 2) and other one with histidine-tryptophan-cetoglutarate (Group 1) in a model of isolated rat heart.ObjectiveTo quantify the fractal dimension and Shannon entropy in rat myocytes subjected to cardioplegia solution using histidine-tryptophan with glutamate in an experimental model, considering the caspase markers, IL-8 and KI-67.MethodsTwenty male Wistar rats were anesthetized and heparinized. The chest was opened, the heart was withdrawn and 40 ml/kg of cardioplegia (with histidine-tryptophan-cetoglutarate or histidine-tryptophan-glutamate solution) was infused. The hearts were kept for 2 hours at 4ºC in the same solution, and thereafter placed in the Langendorff apparatus for 30 min with Ringer-Locke solution. Analyzes were performed for immunohistochemical caspase, IL-8 and KI-67.ResultsThe fractal dimension and Shannon entropy were not different between groups histidine-tryptophan-glutamate and histidine-tryptophan-acetoglutarate.ConclusionThe amount of information measured by Shannon entropy and the distribution thereof (given by fractal dimension) of the slices treated with histidine-tryptophan-cetoglutarate and histidine-tryptophan-glutamate were not different, showing that the histidine-tryptophan-glutamate solution is as good as histidine-tryptophan-acetoglutarate to preserve myocytes in isolated rat heart.
The meaning of the term "cardioplegia" is "lesion, attack, wound or blow", very different to how it is most commonly understood in most heart centers, where it relates to cardiac protection. Thus, "cardioplegic solution" is better defined as a solution capable of inducing controlled cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest induced by cardioplegic solutions can occur by hyperpolarization, depolarization or by inhibiting the calcium channels of the myocardial fibers. This paper discusses hyperpolarizing cardioplegic solutions, which arrest the heart in the diastolic phase, thus decreasing the ATP depletion and improving the conditions of the heart to be reanimated at the end of the procedure.
ObjectiveTo test the capacity of the Logistic CASUS Score on the second postoperative day, the total serum bilirubin dosage on the second postoperative day and the extracorporeal circulation time, as possible predictive factors of long-term stay in Intensive Care Unit after cardiac surgery.MethodsEight-two patients submitted to cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation were selected. The Logistic CASUS Score on the second postoperative day was calculated and bilirubin dosage on the second postoperative day was measured. The extracorporeal circulation time was also registered. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A, those who were discharged up to the second day of postoperative care; Group B, those who were discharged after the second day of postoperative care.ResultsIn this study, 40 cases were listed in Group A and 42 cases in Group B. The mean extracorporeal circulation time was 83.9±29.4 min in Group A and 95.8±29.31 min in Group B. Extracorporeal circulation time was not significant in this study (P=0.0735). The level of P significance of bilirubin dosage on the second postoperative day was 0.0003 and an area under the ROC curve of 0.708 with a cut-off point at 0.51 mg/dl was registered. The level of P significance of Logistic CASUS Score on the second postoperative day was 0.0001 and an area under the ROC curve of 0.723 with a cut-off point at 0.40% was registered.ConclusionThe Logistic CASUS Score on the second postoperative day has shown to be better than the bilirubin dosage on the second postoperative day as a predictive tool for calculating the length of stay in intensive care unit during the postoperative care period of patients. Notwithstanding, extracorporeal circulation time has failed to prove itself as an efficient tool to predict an extended length of stay in intensive care unit.
Importância da troponina I no diagnóstico do infarto do miocárdio no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularizaçãoThe importance of troponin I in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in the postoperative of coronary artery bypass graft surgery Abstract Objective: The aim of this study is to establish a cut-off value for troponin I by correlating it to occurrence of postoperative myocardial infarction.Methods: 180 consecutive patients with coronary disease referred for surgery were included. The mean age of the patients were 60.6 (±9.3) years, with 119 (66.1%) males and 61 (33.9%) females. The patients were divided into two groups: group without myocardial infarction (A) -170 patients -and with myocardial infarction (B) -10 patients.The troponin I was collected from each patient at the beginning of anesthesia and on the second postoperative day by correlating it to presence or not of postoperative myocardial infarction. StatsDirect 1.6.0 for Windows was used for statistical analysis.Results: Preoperative troponin I was 1.0 (±6) ng/ml as mean. Univariate logistic regression showed correlation of troponin I of the second postoperative day with myocardial infarction (P=0.0005). ROC curve was used to define the cut-off value, and 6.1 ng/ml (sensitivity=90.0%, specificity=82.1%, OR=49.8 with CI=95% 6.1-410.4, P<0.0001) were found.Conclusion: The chance of a patient with postoperative myocardial infarction to present troponin I equal to or higher than 6.1 ng/ml is 49.8-fold higher than the chance of a patient without infarction to present troponin I higher than this value. Resultados: A troponina I pré-operatória apresentou uma
INTRODUCTIONIn a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology.OBJECTIVETo present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences.METHODSA bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages.RESULTSAs we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices.CONCLUSIONConsidering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability.
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