Diagnosis of pigmented lesions of the oral cavity and perioral tissues is challenging. Even though epidemiology may be of some help in orientating the clinician and even though some lesions may confidently be diagnosed on clinical grounds alone, the definitive diagnosis usually requires histopathologic evaluation. Oral pigmentation can be physiological or pathological, and exogenous or endogenous. Color, location, distribution, and duration as well as drugs use, family history, and change in pattern are important for the differential diagnosis. Dark or black pigmented lesions can be focal, multifocal or diffuse macules, including entities such as racial pigmentation, melanotic macule, melanocytic nevus, blue nevus, smoker’s melanosis, oral melanoacanthoma, pigmentation by foreign bodies or induced by drugs, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Addison´s disease and oral melanoma. The aim of this review is to present the main oral black lesions contributing to better approach of the patients.
Key words:Pigmentation, melanin, oral, diagnosis, management.
Denture stomatitis (DS) is frequently associated with high levels of Candida in saliva and deficient denture hygiene. In order to analyse the incidence of DS and its pre-disposing factors, we evaluated 77 edentulous patients before and 6 months after the placement of new complete dentures. Denture stomatitis was observed in 50.6 and 18.2% of the patients at the first and second evaluation, respectively. Salivary flow, Candida counts in saliva and Candida species were similar in both evaluations. Denture stomatitis and Candida in saliva were more common in females. Our results showed that denture replacement and denture hygiene improvement were useful for DS resolution, particularly types I and II. However, oral and denture hygiene must be continuous, inasmuch as salivary Candida counts remained high and it is considered an important pre-disposing factor for DS.
Radiation-related caries is a unique form of rampant decay and is a complication of head and neck radiotherapy that frequently causes generalized dental destruction and impairs quality of life in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of demineralization of caries in irradiated patients and to establish whether direct radiogenic damage to the dentition might be important in the progression of radiation-related caries. Teeth from patients who had concluded radiotherapy were examined histologically by polarized light microscopy, and the ultrastructure was examined by scanning backscattered electron microscopy. Cervical caries and incisal caries, a very unusual sort of lesion, were widely detected. Additionally, diffuse brown discoloration of the smooth surface of enamel was frequently observed. Polarized light microscopy suggested that these areas were incipient caries. Evidence of normal odontoblast function was observed in the detection of reactionary dentin and intratubular dentin deposition. In conclusion, radiation-related caries seems to have the same morphological and demineralization pattern as ordinary caries, with the presence of demineralized dentin, a translucent zone, dentin dead tracts, reactionary dentin and intratubular dentin deposition. Based on these findings, direct radiogenic destruction of the teeth seems to be not essential to the microscopic progression of radiation-related caries.
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