This study is focused on the identification of the faecal virome of healthy chickens raised in high-density, export-driven poultry farms in Brazil. Following high-throughput sequencing, a total of 7743 de novo-assembled contigs were constructed and compared with known nucleotide/amino acid sequences from the GenBank database. Analyses with blastx revealed that 279 contigs (4 %) were related to sequences of eukaryotic viruses. Viral genome sequences (total or partial) indicative of members of recognized viral families, including Adenoviridae, Caliciviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae and Reoviridae, were identified, some of those representing novel genotypes. In addition, a range of circular replication-associated protein encoding DNA viruses were also identified. The characterization of the faecal virome of healthy chickens described here not only provides a description of the viruses encountered in such niche but should also represent a baseline for future studies comparing viral populations in healthy and diseased chicken flocks. Moreover, it may also be relevant for human health, since chickens represent a significant proportion of the animal protein consumed worldwide.
Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most frequent foodborne illnesses worldwide and it is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with enterotoxins produced by some strains of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, S. aureus has been identified as the second most frequent agent of foodborne illnesses in the last two decades. The aim of the present study was to assess and analyse the epidemiological data of S. aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of RS during the years of 2000 to 2002. The official records of epidemiological investigations carried out by the Sanitary Surveillance Services of the State of RS were analysed. Among foodborne outbreaks for which aetiology was determined, S. aureus was identified as the responsible agent of 57 foodborne outbreaks, being 42 (74%) confirmed by microbiological analyses and 15 (26%) confirmed by clinical symptoms and/or epidemiological data. Staphylococcal outbreaks were responsible for the exposition of 5,991 persons, of which 1,940 (32%) were interviewed by the Sanitary Surveillance officers. The most affected age group corresponded to people with 20 to 49 years old (48%), where men (48%) and women (52%) were affected similarly. The main involved food vehicles were meats servings (35%), followed by pastries (25%), cheese (23%), pasta (11%) and potato salad with homemade mayonnaise (11%). The majority of the outbreaks occurred inside private homes (33%) followed by commercial food establishments (28%). Inadequate control of temperature and failures in general hygiene practices were identified as the main factors responsible for the outbreaks. In conclusion, S. aureus was an important food poisoning etiological agent in the State of RS during 2000 to 2002 and its prevention depends on control measures involving different parts of the food chain.
Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is taxonomically classified as a member of the Circovirus genus, family Circoviridae. The virus contains a single stranded DNA genome of approximately 2 kb, with minor length variations among different isolates. The occurrence of PiCV infections in pigeons (Columba livia) has been documented worldwide over the past 20 years; however, in Brazil there were still no reports on PiCV detection. This study identifies seven PiCV genomes recovered from domestic pigeons of South Brazil through high-throughput sequencing and shows a high frequency of PiCV infection, through quantitative real-time PCR. Phylogenetic classification was performed by maximum likelihood analysis of the full genomes, ORF V1 (Rep) and ORF C1 (Cap). The results show that either full genome or Cap based analysis allowed PiCV classification into five major clades (groups A to E), where Brazilian sequences were classified as A, C or D. Recombination analyses were carried out with Simplot and RDP4 and the results show that both Rep and Cap ORFs contain several recombination hotspots, pointing to an important role for such events in PiCV evolution.
a b s t r a c tThis study was conducted to evaluate the influence of thermal treatment (74, 82, and 90°C), glycerol (30%, 35%, and 40%, w/w) and protein concentrations (3.0%, 3.5%, and 4.0% w/w) of film-forming solution on the properties of Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) protein isolate (API) films produced by casting. The API presented 88.8% of proteins, 5.5% moisture, 1.3% lipids, 1.0% ash and 53.3% of polar amino acids. The DSC of protein isolate was observed at maximum temperature of 62.2°C and DH 6.4 J/g. The thickness, water vapor permeability, color difference and opacity of the films were not affected by the experimental variables studied (p > 0.05). The lowest solubility, elongation, and highest tensile strength of the films occurred at low temperature, low protein and glycerol concentrations (p < 0.05). Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy of the films showed homogeneous surfaces at low temperature.
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