BackgroundObesity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of
cardiovascular diseases; however, other factors, combined or not with obesity, can
influence cardiovascular risk and should be considered in cardiovascular risk
stratification in pediatrics. ObjectiveTo analyze the association between anthropometry measures and cardiovascular risk
factors, to investigate the determinants to changes in blood pressure (BP), and to
propose a prediction equation to waist circumference (WC) in children and
adolescents. MethodsWe evaluated 1,950 children and adolescents, aged 7 to 18 years. Visceral fat was
assessed by WC and waist hip relationship, BP and body mass index (BMI). In a
randomly selected subsample of these volunteers (n = 578), total cholesterol,
glucose and triglycerides levels were evaluated. ResultsWC was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) and BP (SBP r =
0.45 and DBP = 0.37; p < 0.001). Glycaemia and triglycerides showed a weak
correlation with WC (r = 0.110; p = 0.008 e r = 0.201; p < 0.001,
respectively). Total cholesterol did not correlate with any of the variables. Age,
BMI and WC were significant predictors on the regression models for BP (p <
0.001). We propose a WC prediction equation for children and adolescents: boys: y
= 17.243 + 0.316 (height in cm); girls: y = 25.197 + 0.256 (height in cm). ConclusionWC is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and presents itself as a risk
factor predictor of hypertension in children and adolescents. The WC prediction
equation proposed by us should be tested in future studies.
Background: During childhood and adolescence, physical inactivity, excess weight, and poor nutrition are risk factors for chronic diseases, especially obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Early intervention can prevent the development of these complications.
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Studies have demonstrated that metabolic complications from child obesity, although silent, increase the risk of development of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. The present paper sought to describe the prevalence of overweight/obesity and analyze the possible relationship between obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, conducted in a university.
METHODS:The study included 564 children and adolescents, aged 8 to 17 years. Body mass index and waist circumference were used to evaluate obesity. Other cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated, like systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glycemia, triglycerides and total cholesterol. Descriptive analysis was used for sample characterization, the chi-square test for categorical variables and Pearson's linear correlation for evaluating the relationship between obesity indicators and other cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: High prevalence of overweight/obesity was found among the schoolchildren (25.3% among the boys and 25.6% among the girls), along with abdominal obesity (19.0%). The overweight/obese schoolchildren presented higher percentages for the pressure and biochemical indicators, compared with underweight and normal-weight schoolchildren. Body mass index and waist circumference showed a weak correlation with the variables of age and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001), but there was no correlation between these obesity indices and biochemical variables. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of overweight/obesity and its relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors demonstrate that it is necessary to develop intervention and prevention strategies from childhood onwards, in order to avoid development of chronic-degenerative diseases in adulthood.RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Estudos demonstram que as complicações metabólicas da obesidade infantil, mesmo silenciosas, aumentam o risco de desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares na fase adulta. O presente estudo buscou descrever a prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade, analisando possível relação entre obesidade e demais fatores de risco cardiovascular em crianças e adolescentes. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal, realizado em universidade. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas 564 crianças e adolescentes de 8 a 17 anos. Foi utilizado o índice de massa corporal e a circunferência da cintura para avaliar obesidade. Outros fatores de risco cardiovasculares foram avaliados, como pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica, glicemia, triglicerídeos e colesterol total. Foi utilizada a análise descritiva para caracterização da amostra, teste de qui-quadrado para variáveis categóricas e correlação linear de Pearson para avaliar a relação entre os indicadores de obesidade e demais fatores de risco cardiovasculares. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada alta prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade entre os escolares (25,3% entre os meninos e 25,6% entre as meninas), assim como obesidade abdominal (19,0%). Escolares c...
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