ORCID IDs: 0000-0003-4287-6927 (M.L.S.); 0000-0002-7609-0378 (O.V.S.); 0000-0001-5932-6468 (B.J.W.); 0000-0002-4621-1490 (P.W.); 0000-0001-7648-3924 (J.A.L.).The coordinated positioning of veins, mesophyll cells, and stomata across a leaf is crucial for efficient gas exchange and transpiration and, therefore, for overall function. In monocot leaves, stomatal cell files are positioned at the flanks of underlying longitudinal leaf veins, rather than directly above or below. This pattern suggests either that stomatal formation is inhibited in epidermal cells directly in contact with the vein or that specification is induced in cell files beyond the vein. The SHORTROOT pathway specifies distinct cell types around the vasculature in subepidermal layers of both root and shoots, with cell type identity determined by distance from the vein. To test whether the pathway has the potential to similarly pattern epidermal cell types, we expanded the expression domain of the rice (Oryza sativa ssp japonica) OsSHR2 gene, which we show is restricted to developing leaf veins, to include bundle sheath cells encircling the vein. In transgenic lines, which were generated using the orthologous ZmSHR1 gene to avoid potential silencing of OsSHR2, stomatal cell files were observed both in the normal position and in more distant positions from the vein. Contrary to theoretical predictions, and to phenotypes observed in eudicot leaves, the increase in stomatal density did not enhance photosynthetic capacity or increase mesophyll cell density. Collectively, these results suggest that the SHORTROOT pathway may coordinate the positioning of veins and stomata in monocot leaves and that distinct mechanisms may operate in monocot and eudicot leaves to coordinate stomatal patterning with the development of underlying mesophyll cells.The coordinated differentiation of cell types within an organ is a crucial component of morphogenesis, necessary to ensure that the final form is appropriate for function. In this regard, photosynthetic function in plant leaves requires that chloroplast-containing cells in the middle leaf layers are interspersed with veins (to supply water and to redistribute metabolites) and are overlaid with stomatal pores through which carbon dioxide can enter the leaf. In grass leaves, cellular arrangements are defined by parallel longitudinal veins that extend from the base of the leaf sheath to the tip of the leaf blade, with short transverse veins interconnecting the longitudinal network (Sharman, 1942;Esau, 1943;Nelson and Dengler, 1997). This vascular framework underpins linear files of stomata in the epidermis, with each vein being flanked by one to three rows of stomata on both the medial and lateral sides (Stebbins and Shah, 1960). The genetic mechanisms that ensure optimal photosynthetic capacity in grass leaves, by coordinating the development of veins, photosynthetic cell types, and stomata, are not known.Grass leaves develop basipetally such that cellular differentiation proceeds from the tip of the leaf to the base, ...
All grass leaves are strap-shaped with a series of parallel veins running from base to tip, but the distance between each pair of veins, and the cell-types that develop between them, differs depending on whether the plant performs C3 or C4 photosynthesis. As part of a multinational effort to introduce C4 traits into rice to boost crop yield, candidate regulators of C4 leaf anatomy were previously identified through an analysis of maize leaf transcriptomes. Here we tested the potential of 60 of those candidate genes to alter leaf anatomy in rice. In each case, transgenic rice lines were generated in which the maize gene was constitutively expressed. Lines grouped into three phenotypic classes: (1) indistinguishable from wild-type; (2) aberrant shoot and/or root growth indicating possible perturbations to hormone homeostasis; and (3) altered secondary cell wall formation. One of the genes in class 3 defines a novel monocot-specific family. None of the genes were individually sufficient to induce C4-like vein patterning or cell-type differentiation in rice. A better understanding of gene function in C4 plants is now needed to inform more sophisticated engineering attempts to alter leaf anatomy in C3 plants.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers