The purpose of this research was evaluation of the effect of soil contamination with waste coming from biomass gasification on chosen indicators of its biological activity, growth and development of spring barley, and change of physiological parameters of the plant. Chromatographic content and basic rheological parameters of the substances under research were also analyzed. Liquid wastes, tar, and mixture of tar and engine oil were introduced to the soil in the amount of 100 mg kg−1 DM soil. Based on the conducted research, it was ascertained that the changes in the number and activity of soil microorganisms were determined by the type of waste and its dose. Individual groups of microorganisms showed different sensitivity to the presence of pollution; however, the impact of tar and engine oil mixture was generally more disadvantageous. Presence of contaminants in the soil limited the growth of roots and aboveground parts of spring barley, especially when the dose was 10,000 mg kg−1 DM soil. The unfavorable impact of waste on photosynthesis efficiency on assimilation pigment synthesis and water content in the plant was recorded.
Strawberry is a species sensitive to water shortages, especially during fruit growth and ripening. Reduced availability of water induces physiological and biochemical changes in all organs of the plant. Limitation of gas exchange can reduce assimilation of carbon dioxide, which, as a result, limits plant growth and development. Strawberry sensitivity to drought results from the disproportion between a relatively high mass and
×Amarine hybrids are attractive ornamental geophytes grown for cut flower production. Their cultivation is limited due to lesser flowering percentages and lesser bulb weight gain. To optimize the growth and propagation of geophytes, plant growth regulators (PGRs) are used, but so far none have been tested in ×Amarine. We investigated the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3; 50, 100, and 200 mg dm−3) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA; 100, 500, and 1000 µmol dm−3) on growth, flowering, bulb yield, and select physiological parameters of ×A. tubergenii “Zwanenburg”. PGRs were applied as foliar sprays on the 70th and 77th day after planting. GA3 treatment at 200 mg dm−3 exhibited the greatest leaf number, leaf length, bulb weight, daughter bulb number, CO2 assimilation intensity, greenness index, total sugars, and total protein content in bulbs. GA3 application at 100 and 200 mg dm−3 accelerated flowering and at 50 and 100 mg dm−3 significantly increased the bulb flowering percentage. MeJA at all tested concentrations prolonged anthesis time and reduced the bulb flowering percentage. GA3 at all concentrations and MeJA at 500 and 1000 µmol dm−3 stimulated daughter bulbs formation. GA3, especially at 200 mg dm−3 can improve anthesis and increase ×A. tubergenii “Zwanenburg” bulb yield.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the foliar fertilizer InCa on the chemical composition of fruits and leaves of sweet cherry cultivar 'Burlat'. The study involved 14-year old sweet cherry trees of 'Burlat' cultivar, grafted onto 'PHL-A' rootstock and growing at 4×3 m spacing. The trees were sprayed with InCa calcium fertilizer based on CaT technology (manufacturer: Plant Impact). The fertilizer was applied three times, at a dose of 1.5 dm 3 •ha. The first foliar fertilization was performed at the beginning of the flowering period, and the next two took place at fourteen-day intervals. The fruits were analysed for nitrate content, and both fruits and leaves were considered for dry weight and macro-and micronutrient analysis. The use of InCa fertilizer improved the dry matter and calcium content and reduced potassium, magnesium and cadmium level in the leaves and fruits of sweet cherry. The fertilizer facilitated narrowing K:Ca and K:(Ca + Mg) ratioes and extending of K:Mg, and especially Ca:Mg ratio in both leaves and fruits. Foliar supplementation with the investigated preparation resulted in an increase in nitrogen and manganese content, and a drop in phosphorus, copper, nickel and lead concentration in the leaves of the studied sweet cherry cultivar.
Phytoremediation is a cost-effective and ecologically friendly process that involves the use of plants to uptake, accumulate, translocate, stabilize, or degrade pollutants. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the potential of pea (Pisum sativum L. spp. sativum) cultivar Blauwschokker to phytostimulate biodiesel degradation in an agricultural soil, considering the influence of biological remediation on selected physiological parameters of plants and the amount and activity of soil microflora. Biodiesel was spiked into soil in dose of 50 g kg−1 of dry mass soil. The results of the study showed that the rate of biodiesel degradation in the vegetated soil was higher than that occurring by natural attenuation. At the same time, biodiesel showed a positive effect on the growth, development, and activity of soil bacteria and fungi. Moreover, the obtained results showed an improvement in physiological parameters of plants, including an increase in chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll content and higher relative water content in leaves in the presence of biodiesel.
By improving the air and water properties of soils, superabsorbent polymers can affect the increase and improvement of the quality of the yield of berry plants, including strawberries. Their presence in the soil has an influence on its biological activity as related to microorganisms. The aim of the research was to assess the influence of superabsorbent polymers added to the soil on the content of macroelements and sodium in the leaves and fruit of strawberry of the 'Elsanta' cultivar and changes in the number of soil bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. The superabsorbent polymer (AgroHydroGel) was used in two doses: 1.8 and 3.6 g dm -3 of soil. The content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium was assessed using the ASA method, while the content of nitrogen and sulphur was assessed by the elemental analysis method (CHNS analyser). The number of microorganisms was assessed with a BacTrac analyser and the coefficient of microorganism development extent (SR) was also determined. AgroHydroGel increased the content of nitrogen and potassium in leaves and fruit but did not affect the content of phosphorus, sulphur and sodium. The addition of the superabsorbent at a dose of 3.6 g dm -3 of soil reduced the magnesium content both in the leaves and fruit of the strawberry. AgroHydroGel decreased the content of calcium in the fruit. The use of AgroHydroGel contributed to the expansion of the K ion ratio to other ions, both in the leaves and fruits. We observed a significant increase in the amount of soil bacteria (1.8 g dm -3 dose) and no significant influence on actinomycetes and fungi (irrespective of dose used).
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