Podcasts - online distributed audio files - are easy access and production media, which can be used for Scientific Communication (SC) but few are presented in Portuguese. The objective of this work is to perform a case study with data from a survey for two Brazilian SC podcasts (Dragões de Garagem and Fronteiras da Ciência) to evaluate the increase of science podcast media in Brazil, the involved potential, their advantages, shortcomings, and perspectives. We noted an increase of listeners over the years, probably due to the internet popularization and the massive increase of mobile phones. Scientific content is underexplored, despite the great interest of the public. Humorous and informal podcasts are the most appealing to the public and they usually listen to them on informal educational sites. The majority of the public is from the South and Southeast regions, they are young male adults with undergraduate or graduate degrees. SC podcasts, despite their potential to communicate science, still have shortcomings to overcome. Nevertheless, independent initiatives can solve this difficulty, making possible for the media to reach a varied audience, affecting different groups that would not have interest in a specific content before, or even the access itself to the scientific knowledge.
Extrasolar Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting within the habitable zone of M dwarf host stars may play a significant role in the discovery of habitable environments beyond Earth. Spectroscopic characterization of these exoplanets with respect to habitability requires the determination of habitability parameters with respect to remote sensing. The habitable zone of dwarf stars is located in close proximity to the host star, such that exoplanets orbiting within this zone will likely be tidally locked. On terrestrial planets with an icy shell, this may produce a liquid water ocean at the substellar point, one particular "Eyeball Earth" state. In this research proposal, HABEBEE: exploring the HABitability of Eyeball-Exo-Earths, we define the parameters necessary to achieve a stable icy Eyeball Earth capable of supporting life. Astronomical and geochemical research will define parameters needed to simulate potentially habitable environments on an icy Eyeball Earth planet. Biological requirements will be based on detailed studies of microbial communities within Earth analog environments. Using the interdisciplinary results of both the physical and biological teams, we will set up a simulation chamber to expose a cold- and UV-tolerant microbial community to the theoretically derived Eyeball Earth climate states, simulating the composition, atmosphere, physical parameters, and stellar irradiation. Combining the results of both studies will enable us to derive observable parameters as well as target decision guidance and feasibility analysis for upcoming astronomical platforms.
The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.
Here we investigated the diversity of bacterial communities from deep-sea surface sediments under influence of asphalt seeps at the Sao Paulo Plateau using next-generation sequencing (NGS) method.Sampling was performed at North São Paulo Plateau using the human occupied vehicle Shinkai 6500 and her support vessel Yokosuka. The microbial diversity was studied at two surficial sediment layers (0-1 and 1-4 cm) of five samples collected in cores in water depths ranging from 2,456-2,728 m. Bacterial communities were studied through sequencing of 16S rRNA gene on the Ion Torrent platform and clustered in operational taxonomic units. We observed high diversity of bacterial sediment communities as previously described by other studies. When we considered community composition, the most abundant classes were Alphaprotebacteria (27.7%), Acidimicrobiia (20%), Gammaproteobacteria (11.3%) and Deltaproteobacteria (6.6%). Most abundant OTUs at family level were from two uncultured bacteria from Actinomarinales (5.95%) and Kiloniellaceae (3.17%). The unexpected high abundance of Alphaproteobacteria and Acidimicrobiia in our deep-sea microbial communities may be related to the presence of asphalt seep at North São Paulo Plateau, since these bacterial classes contain bacteria that possess the capability of metabolizing hydrocarbon compounds.
0Here we investigated the diversity of bacterial communities from deep-sea surface sediments under 2 1 3 1 unexpected high abundance of Alphaproteobacteria and Acidimicrobiia in our deep-sea microbial 3 2 communities may be related to the presence of asphalt seep at North São Paulo Plateau, since these 3 3 bacterial classes have species capable of metabolizing hydrocarbon compounds.3 4
Endogenous starter cultures are used in the production of several cheeses around the world, such as Parmigiano Reggiano, in Italy, Epoisses, in France, and Canastra, in Brazil. These microbial communities are responsible for many of the intrinsic characteristics of each of these cheeses. Bacteriophages are ubiquitous around the world, well known to be involved in the modulation of complex microbiological processes. However, little is known about phage bacteria growth dynamics in cheese production systems, where phages are normally treated as problems, as the viral infections can negatively affect or even eliminate the starter culture during production. Furthermore, a recent metagenomic based meta-analysis has reported that cheeses contain a high abundance of phage-associated sequences. Here, we analyse the viral and bacterial metagenomes of Canastra cheese, a tradition artisanal cheese produced using an endogenous starter culture. We observe a very high phage diversity level, mostly composed of novel sequences. We detect several metagenomic assembled bacterial genomes at strain level resolution, and several putative phage-bacteria interactions, evidenced by the recovered viral and bacterial genomic signatures. We postulate that at least one bacterial strain detected could be endogenous to the Canastra region, in Brazil, and that its growth seems to be modulated by native phages present in this artisanal production system. This relationship is likely to influence the fermentation dynamics and ultimately the sensorial profile of these cheeses, with implications for all cheeses that employ similar production processes around the world.
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