The 7-item adult version of the Personal Wellbeing scale (Cummins et al. Social Indic Res 64:159-190, 2003) was administered to two samples of adolescents aged 12-16 in Brazil (N = 1,588) and Spain (N = 2,900), and to a sample of adolescents aged 14-16 in Chile (N = 843). The results obtained were analyzed to determine its psychometric characteristics when used with adolescents in the three different countries and to check whether two additional items would improve its qualities. Results reveal that the new PWI-9 version worked well with the adolescents in the three countries, improving some of the qualities of the PWI-7. One of the added items, satisfaction with oneself, appears to be a major contributor to unique explained variance when regressed on the single-item of overall life satisfaction (OLS). The model we present using structural equations shows good fit statistics for the factor structure, with both 7 and 9 items. Separate in-country analyses demonstrate that cultural context has a strong influence on correlations and saturations between the studied variables and also on the explained variance. Probably related to this fact, the Model fit structure is good in Brazil (with a low PWI variance accounted for by its predictors) and Spain (medium), but rather modest in Chile, where data show a high proportion of the PWI variance accounted for by its predictors. However, a multi-group factor analysis among the three countries restricting saturations to 1 in each country in order to make data comparable across countries still show a good fit of the proposed model for both PWI-7 and PWI-9.
This article presents the results of a one-year follow-up study on a sample of 940 adolescents, in which participants have been classified according to the changes they have experienced in their subjective well-being (SWB), measured by means of two different single-item scales (overall life satisfaction -OLSand happiness overall -HOL). A range of multinomial logistic regression models were employed to determine which factors lead to such differences. Results show that when OLS is considered, the factor most contributing to an increase in SWB is family self-concept, while the one most contributing to its decrease is satisfaction with the family. When HOL is taken as the dependent variable, the most important factor in predicting an increase in SWB is being valued in the future according to the amount of money I have, with life optimism being the most important factor in predicting its decrease. Only three indicators (the importance of being valued in the future according to the amount of money I have, feeling happy at home and satisfaction with myself) contribute to explaining both boys' and girls' models when OLS is taken as the dependent variable, while only one indicator (satisfaction with standard of living) is shared in both boys' and girls' models when HOL is the dependent variable. The resulting implications for adolescent SWB are discussed.
Resumen. El objetivo del presente estudio es conocer y comparar los niveles de bienestar subjetivo de adolescentes argentinos y brasileños. La muestra está compuesta por 640 adolescentes de ambos sexos con edades entre los 12 y 16 años, siendo el 46.3% argentinos y el 53.7% brasileños. Se han utilizado tres escalas: el Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI), la Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) y la Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (BMSLSS). El PWI y la BMSLSS mostraron puntuaciones más altas en los adolescentes argentinos (M PWI = 82.42 y M BMSLSS = 41.19) que en los brasileños (M PWI = 80.88 y M BMSLSS = 40.09), y mientras que la SWLS mostró resultados semejantes (M SWLS-Arg = 31.50 y M SWLS-Bra = 31.32). El análisis multivariado de variancia (MANOVA), revela que las tres escalas forman una variable estadística en su conjunto, mostrando diferencias significativas por país (p < .038) y por edad (p < .024), y evidenciando efectos de interacción significativa entre las dos variables (p < .008), pero no por sexo (p = .174), ni en la interacción entre país y sexo (p = .856). Se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados con relación al bienestar considerando el país, la edad y el sexo de los adolescentes.
ResumoA motivação interfere na forma das pessoas interagirem e nas relações com outros, destaca-se neste estudo a motivação no uso de TIC na educação. Este artigo relata a tradução, adaptação e validação da Escala EMITICE, baseada na Teoria da Autodeterminação (TAD). Realizaramse duas fases: (1) tradução, adaptação e teste piloto (N=91), (2) teste de campo e validação (N=466) em alunos brasileiros de cursos a distância, idades entre 18 a 61 anos (M=34,48; DP=9,56), 171 homens (36,7%) e 295 mulheres (63,3%). Utilizaram-se juízes bilíngues, síntese das traduções, comitê de especialistas e backtranslation. Correlação de Pearson, análise fatorial confirmatória e consistência interna demonstram que a EMITICE é válida e fidedigna. A AFC apresentou adequação ao modelo e boa consistência interna na amostra (α = 0,84). Os resultados reforçam as qualidades psicométricas, indicando aplicabilidade em estudos sobre motivação em relação às TIC, constituindo-se num instrumento teórica e empiricamente embasado, útil à pesquisa científica.Palavras-chave: Avaliação, motivação, comunicação e tecnologia.
Distance education: translating, adaptating and validating the motivation emitice scale
AbstractMotivation interferes in the way people interact and relate with others. In this study we focus on the motivation in the use of ICT in education.
Several theoretical models and testing procedures are presented with the aim of identifying the most relevant items and domains to include in a model for evaluating adolescents' subjective well-being, above and beyond those usually included in adults' scales. Data were collected in three countries based on a list of 30 items regarding adolescents' satisfaction with different domains or facets of life. Responses to these 30 items (including Personal Well-Being Index and Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale items) have been analysed by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis using different Structural Equation Models (SEM) on a pooled sample comprising 5,316 twelve to sixteen-year-olds from Spain, Brazil and Chile. Several models have shown good enough fit statistics. A model using 14 items shows excellent fit statistics and is conceptually coherent. However, the inclusion or non-inclusion of items related to satisfaction with religion or spirituality results in both advantages and disadvantages when comparing the alternative models analysed. The relevance of including these items may therefore depend on the socio-cultural context where data are collected and their inclusion makes cross-country comparison more statistically challenging. The 14-item model has also been tested using multigroup SEM in order to check comparability of data among the three countries. All things considered, multigroup models have shown good fit with constrained loadings, but not with constrained loadings and intercepts, suggesting we can compare correlations and regressions among countries, but not means. Additional multigroup SEM with the five age groups available from the pooled sample have demonstrated that responses-and means-are comparable across different age groups during early adolescenceSpanish data were collected with the support of the Spanish Ministry of Education and
Science grant SEJ2007-62813/P
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