Improper management of weeds is one of the causes of low bean yield, as it is very susceptible to interference due to their slow initial growth. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of dayflower on grain yield and nutrient accumulation of bean cultivars. The experiment was carried out in a screened house, in 5 L pots, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme. Factor 1 corresponded to the presence or absence of weeds, and factor 2 bean cultivars: BRS Pontal, BRS Agreste, BRS Ametista and BRS Estilo. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications. The coexistence of bean and weed was maintained throughout the crop cycle. Chlorophyll content, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, nutrients contents (N - nitrogen, P - phosphorus, K - potassium, Ca - calcium, Mg - magnesium, Mn - manganese, Fe - iron and Zn - zinc) in grains were evaluated. Competition with weeds negatively influenced chlorophyll content, number of pods, yield and N content in grains. The interaction was significant to P, Mg and Fe contents in grains, demonstrating that competition with weeds may impair allocation of these nutrients, resulting in grains of inferior nutritional quality. The cultivar BRS Agreste was more efficient to accumulate P and Mg in grains in competition with dayflower.
Inappropriate use and management of land has generated processes of environmental degradation, in which the increasing removal of forest coverage has impaired the hydrological cycle, water and soil quality. The objective of this work is to know the effects of the protection of the spring, and the initial part of its watercourse, on the environmental conditions in a family property. The study was carried out on the property located in the Rainha da Paz Community, in Alegre-ES, using indicators used for environmental monitoring, at the beginning in September 2013 and after one year (September 2014) of the Water Planters Project. The quality indicators used in the evaluation clearly show that the initial situation in the spring APP, and APP around the main watercourse was inadequate, in several indicators mainly due to the occupation of the area with agricultural use, specifically pasture, occurring cattle trampling within a radius of 50 meters of the spring's permanent preservation area, causing soil compaction and silting, showing a high degree of degradation, reflecting the lack of environmental adequacy, thus not complying with current environmental legislation. The project promoted improvements in the environmental conditions of the family property, through the natural regeneration of native species, bringing gains to the floristic composition, in addition to improvements in the soil conditions.
The present study aimed to estimate genetic parameters of 20 common bean genotypes, commercial and regional bean on weed interference. The agronomic characters analyzed were: average stem diameter (ASD); average plant length (APL); number of pods per pot (NPP); number of locules per pod (NLP); number of grains per pod (NGP); percentage of empty locules (% EL); total grains per pot (TGP); total grain weight per pot (TGW) and average grain weight (AGW). High heritability values were found for most of the characters studied, except for NGP and EL; in addition to great genetic variability among genotypes. Therefore, for most of the characteristics of agronomic interest studied, simple selection methods can be applied with great potential to identify superior genotypes and consequent genetic progress in common bean breeding.
Considred a more accessible protein source for the population, common beans are consumed daily, mainly in developing countries, in the tropical and subtropical regions of the planet. Studies that use both morphological descriptors and molecular markers have been used in plant breeding programs for common beans. This article aims to report the study of the diversity of recombinant inbred lines and their parents using morphologial descriptors and SSR markers. 22 recombinant inbreeding lines were evaluated derived from the BRS Agreste parents and the black-01 line.For the characterization, 18 microsatellite markers and the following morphological descriptors were used: presence of anthocyanin, number of days after germination, days for flowering, wing color, standard color, seed color, tegument color, seed brightness, commercial group. For molecular characterization, seven markers were used that presented polymorphism The dissimilarity values, using morphological data, ranged from 0 to 8.5; organizing the lineages into three distinct groups. In the molecular analyzes, of the 18 primers tested, 11 were monomorphic and 7 presented polymorphism. The dissimilarity values for molecular analysis ranged from 0 to 0.8; with an average of 0.57. In addition to being informative, these markers are associated with important characteristics for common beans. Joint analysis of the data presented dissimilarity values ranging from 0.0 to 12.5, with an average of 6.89, forming three groups. The joint analysis of morphological and molecular data was efficient to characterize and distinguish inbred lines. The molecular markers used were suitable to the present study. The lines 18 and 19 can be considered duplicate because in all analyzes they remained together.
Coffee has the characteristic of ripening unevenly. Production through wet process favors ripe berries. The fraction of green and green-cane fruit on the coffee tree is normally treated as an inferior quality product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physical and sensorial aspects of the quality of green-cane and cherry coffee produced through wet process. Batches of coffee were separated according to ripeness and pulped. Drying was carried out on raised patios until reaching 11% wb. After processing, the beans were selected and classified by size. The sensorial analysis was performed through cupping using the scale of the Brazilian Specialty Coffee Association (BSCA). The experiment was carried out at DBC with seven blocks each containing four plots, the source of variance being the ripeness on two levels: cherry and green-cane. The data was subjected to variance analysis (ANOVA) and the averages compared using F test at 5%. Green-cane coffee presented better yield both in sieving and dry mass, as well as a higher quantity of defects. The final cup quality rating did not differ in regard to ripeness. The pulped green-cane coffee may have added value for its beverage quality.
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