ontracted through the bite of an infected mosquito or through sexual or other modes of transmission, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can be prenatally passed from mother to fetus. 1 The virus was first identified in the region of the Americas in early 2015, when local transmission was reported in Brazil. 2 Six months later, a notable increase in the number of infants with congenital microcephaly was observed in northeast Brazil. 3,4 Clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory evidence led investigators to conclude that intrauterine ZIKV infection was a cause of microcephaly and serious brain anomalies.  However, as with other newly recognized teratogens, these features likely represent a portion of a broader spectrum.A comprehensive review of the English literature, identified by searching Medline and EMBASE for Zika from inception through Sep-tember 30, 2016, was done to better characterize the spectrum of anomalies in fetuses and infants with presumed or laboratoryconfirmed ZIKV infection. A constellation of anomalies that is both consistent and unique, called congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), has emerged but specific components and presumed pathogenetic mechanisms previously have not been well-delineated.  Zika virus infection has spread to more than 45 countries in the Americas and 3 US territories, and, most recently, local transmission was confirmed in the continental United States in the state of Florida. 11 Mosquito-borne transmission of ZIKV in other areas of the United States is possible based on the estimated range of its vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). 12 Recognition of the CZS phenotype by pediatric clinicians will help ensure appropriate and timely evaluation and follow-up of affected infants.IMPORTANCE Zika virus infection can be prenatally passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that intrauterine Zika virus infection is a cause of microcephaly and serious brain anomalies, but the full spectrum of anomalies has not been delineated. To inform pediatric clinicians who may be called on to evaluate and treat affected infants and children, we review the most recent evidence to better characterize congenital Zika syndrome.OBSERVATIONS We reviewed published reports of congenital anomalies occurring in fetuses or infants with presumed or laboratory-confirmed intrauterine Zika virus infection. We conducted a comprehensive search of the English literature using Medline and EMBASE for Zika from inception through September 30, 2016. Congenital anomalies were considered in the context of the presumed pathogenetic mechanism related to the neurotropic properties of the virus. We conclude that congenital Zika syndrome is a recognizable pattern of structural anomalies and functional disabilities secondary to central and, perhaps, peripheral nervous system damage. Although many of the components of this syndrome, such as cognitive, sensory, and motor disabilities, are shared by other congenital infections, there are 5 features that are rarely seen w...
Approved by the following research ethics committee: Altino Ventura Foundation (protocol #1.361.143) and was conducted at the Altino Ventura Foundation. ABSTRACTPurpose: In 2015, a twenty-fold increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil was reported, and the Ministry of Health associated this abnormal prevalence with the maternal-fetal Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Methods:We assessed the ophthalmological findings of ten mothers and their infants that had been clinically diagnosed with ZIKV-related microcephaly and presented ocular abnormalities, born from May to December 2015. Results: Seven mothers (70.0%) referred symptoms during pregnancy (malaise, rash and arthralgia), of which six (85.7%) were in the first trimester. At the time of exam, no ophthalmological abnormalities were identified in the mothers and they did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. Serology was negative in all infants for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Ocular findings included macular alterations (gross pigment mottling and/or chorioretinal atrophy) in fifteen eyes (75.0%), and optic nerve abnormalities (hypoplasia with double-ring sign, pallor, and/or increased cup-to-disk ratio) in nine eyes (45.0%). Conclusions: Patients presented normal anterior segment and important macular and optic nerve abnormalities. Further studies will assess the visual significance of these alterations.
IMPORTANCE The Zika virus (ZIKV) might cause microcephaly and ophthalmoscopic findings in infants of mothers infected during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE To assess and identify possible risk factors for ophthalmoscopic findings in infants born with microcephaly and a presumed clinical diagnosis of ZIKV intrauterine infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Altino Ventura Foundation in Recife, Brazil, that included 40 infants with microcephaly born in Pernambuco state, Brazil, between May and December 2015. Toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus were ruled out in all of them. Testing of cerebrospinal fluid for ZIKV using IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed in 24 of 40 infants (60.0%). The infants and mothers underwent ocular examinations. The infants were divided into 2 groups, those with and without ophthalmoscopic alterations, for comparison. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Identification of risk factors for ophthalmoscopic findings in infants born with microcephaly and ZIKV intrauterine infection. RESULTS Among the 40 infants, the mean (SD) age was 2.2 (1.2) months (range, 0.1-7.3 months). Of the 24 infants tested, 100% had positive results for ZIKV infection: 14 of 22 infants (63.6%) from the group with ophthalmoscopic findings and 10 of 18 infants (55.6%) from the group without ophthalmoscopic findings. The major symptoms reported in both groups were rash by 26 mothers (65.0%), fever by 9 mothers (22.5%), headache by 9 mothers (22.5%), and arthralgia by 8 mothers (20.0%). No mothers reported conjunctivitis or other ocular symptoms during pregnancy or presented signs of uveitis at the time of examination. Thirty-seven eyes (46.3%) of 22 infants (55.0%) had ophthalmoscopic alterations. Ten mothers (71.4%) of infants with ocular findings reported symptoms during the first trimester (frequency, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.02-0.67; P = .04). A difference was also observed between the groups of infants with and without ocular findings regarding the cephalic perimeter: mean (SD) of 28.8 (1.7) and 30.3 (1.5), respectively (frequency, −1.50; 95% CI, −2.56 to −0.51; P = .004). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Ocular involvement in infants with presumed ZIKV congenital infection were more often seen in infants with smaller cephalic diameter at birth and in infants whose mothers reported symptoms during the first trimester.
-The psychiatric examination was performed with diagnostic instruments for autism (DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale-CARS) in 23 children with Möbius sequence. From the 23 patients studied with Möbius sequence, five (26.1%) met the diagnostic criteria for infantile autism according DSM-IV and two (8.6%), under two years old, showed autistic-like behavior. The scores for six children were compatible to severe autism symptoms according CARS and one child met the criteria for moderate autism symptoms. Among five children with autism, three (60%) had positive history of misoprostol exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy and from two cases autistic-like, one (50%) had positive history of misoprostol exposure during pregnancy.According to our data, this is the first report of Möbius sequence with autism and positive history of misoprostol use during pregnancy.
Autism is a complex developmental disorder without an established single etiology but with significant contributions from genetic studies, functional research, and neuropsychiatric and neuroradiologic investigations. The purpose of this paper is to review the findings in five studies involving individuals manifesting the characteristic findings of autism spectrum disorder associated with malformations and dysfunctions known to result from early embryogenic defects. These investigations include two associated with teratogens (thalidomide embryopathy, Mobius sequence with misoprostol) and three (most Mobius sequence cases, CHARGE association, Goldenhar syndrome) with no known etiology. These studies suggest that early embryonic development errors often involving cranial nerve palsies, internal and external ear malformations, ophthalmologic anomalies, and a variety of systemic malformations may be associated with autism spectrum disorders statistically more frequently than expected in a normal population. Although the exact time of developmental insult for each condition cannot be identified, the evidence is that it may occur as early as week 4 to 6+ of embryogenesis.
Congenital Zika virus infection has obvious implications for infants, and considerable research has addressed the nature and consequences of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Children with classic CZS meet the criteria for "children with medical complexity," and ongoing research is required to understand the range of needs and optimal treatment options. Far less attention has been given to the consequences of CZS for families, which are both immediate and lifelong. Although families of children with CZS have much in common with families of other children with disabilities, at least 4 features of CZS have special family implications: (1) the severity of the impact on children with obvious abnormalities at birth, coupled with the anticipation of a lifetime of caregiving and economic burdens; (2) uncertainty about the unfolding consequences, both for obviously affected children and for exposed children with no symptoms at birth; (3) a lack of specialized professional knowledge about the course of the disease or treatment options; and (4) social isolation, a lack of social or community supports, and potential stigma. Supporting families will require a family-centered approach to services, extensive care coordination, access to evolving new information, ongoing surveillance, formal and informal supports, and individualized child and family services.
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