Human activities pose a significant threat to the water quality of rivers when pollution exceeds the threshold limit. Urban activities in particular are highlighted as one of the major causes of contamination in surface water bodies in Asian countries. Evaluation of sustainable human population capacities in river watersheds is necessary to maintain better freshwater ecosystems in a country while achieving its development goals as a nation. We evaluated the correlation between the growth rate of the population in a watershed area and water quality parameters of a river ecosystem. The Kelani River in Sri Lanka was selected for the study. The highest correlation coefficients of 0.7, 0.69, 0.69 (p < 0.01) corresponding to biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and total coliform (TC) were obtained with the population in watersheds of the Kelani river in Sri Lanka. Thus, we propose a quantitative approach to estimating the population capacity of watersheds based on water quality classification standards (WQCS), employing the Bayesian network (BN) classification model. The optimum population ranges were obtained from the probability distribution table of the population node in the BN. The results showed that the population density should be approximately less than 2375 to keep the water quality in the watershed for bathing and drinking purposes and approximately less than 2672 for fish and other aquatic organisms. This research will offer a means that can used to understand the impact of population on water quality in river basins and confer direct influence on natural water bodies.
Traffic sign recognition usually consists of two parts : detection and classification. In this paper we describe the classification stage using ring partitioned method. In this method, first the RGB image is converted into gray scale image using color thresholding and histogram specification technique. This gray scale image, called as specified gray scale image is invariant to the illumination changes. Then the image is classified using ring partitioned method. The image is divided by several concentric areas like rings. In every ring the histogram is used as an image descriptor. The matching process is done by computing the histogram distances for all rings of the images by introducing the weights for every ring. The method doesn't need a lot of samples of sign images for training process, alternatively only the standard sign images are used as the reference images. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the method in the matching of occluded, rotated, and illumination problems of traffic sign images.
Aryuanto SOETEDJO•õa), Nonmember and Koichi YAMADA•õ•õb), Member SUMMARY This paper describes a new color segmentation based on a normalized RGB chromaticity diagram for face detection. Face skin is extracted from color images using a coarse skin region with fixed boundaries followed by a fine skin region with variable boundaries. Two newly developed histograms that have prominent peaks of skin color and nonskin colors are employed to adjust the boundaries of the skin region. The proposed approach does not need a skin color model, which depends on a specific camera parameter and is usually limited to a particular environment condition, and no sample images are required. The experimental results using color face images of various races under varying lighting conditions and complex backgrounds, obtained from four different resources on the Internet, show a high detection rate of 87%. The results of the detection rate and computation time are comparable to the well known real-time face detection method proposed by Viola-Jones , .
In this paper, a descriptive decision-making model under uncertainty is proposed which incorporates two types of decision attitudes for uncertainty; one is an attitude about ignorance (optimism/pessimism) and the other one is about risk (risk-seeking and risk-aversion). At first, Evidential Decision Making Problem (EDMP) has been defined where Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) has been used to represent uncertainty. Then probability approximation approach of solving EDMP is shown. For deciding the decision weights in different attitudes of decision maker, Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) operator has been used. Later on, Prospect Theory has been applied to accomplish a descriptive decision-making model. To show the effectiveness of our approach, a real life decision problem of travelers' route choice from a set of alternatives has also been provided.
Ceramic is one of the highly competitive products in Thailand. Many Thai ceramic companies are attempting to know the customer needs and perceptions for making favorite products. To know customer needs is the target of designers and to develop a product that must satisfy customers. This research is applied Kansei Engineering (KE) and Data Mining (DM) into the customer driven product design process. KE can translate customer emotions into the product attributes. This method determines the relationships between customer feelings or Kansei words and the design attributes. Decision tree J48 and Class association rule which implemented through Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA) software are used to generate a predictive model and to find the appropriate rules. In this experiment, the emotion scores were rated by 37 participants for training data and 16 participants for test data. 6 Kansei words were selected, namely, attractive, ease of drinking, ease of handing, quality, modern and durable. 10 mugs were selected as product samples. The results of this study indicate that the proposed models and rules can interpret the design product elements affecting the customer emotions. Finally, this study provides useful understanding for the application DM in KE and can be applied to a variety of design cases.
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