In modern hernia surgery, there are two competing mesh concepts which often lead to controversial discussions, on the one hand the heavyweight small porous model and on the other, the lightweight large porous hypothesis. The present review illustrates the rationale of both mesh concepts and compares experimental data with the first clinical data available. In summary, the lightweight large porous mesh philosophy takes into consideration all of the recent data regarding physiology and mechanics of the abdominal wall and inguinal region. Furthermore, the new mesh concept reveals an optimized foreign body reaction based on reduced amounts of mesh material and, in particular, a significantly decreased surface area in contact with the recipient host tissues by the large porous model. Finally, recent data demonstrate that alterations in the extracellular matrix of hernia patients play a crucial role in the development of hernia recurrence. In particular, long-term recurrences months or years after surgery and implantation of mesh can be explained by the extracellular matrix hypothesis. However, if the altered extracellular matrix proves to be the weak area, the decisive question is whether the amount of material as well as mechanical and tensile strength of the surgical mesh are really of significant importance for the development of recurrent hernia. All experimental evidence and first clinical data indicate the superiority of the lightweight large porous mesh concept with regard to a reduced number of long-term complications and particularly, increased comfort and quality of life after hernia repair.
BackgroundEffective repair of hernia is a difficult task. There have been many advances in hernia repair techniques over the past 50 years, but new strategies must be considered to enhance the success of herniorrhaphy.DiscussionAt the 30th International Congress of the European Hernia Society, nine experts in hernia repair and experimental mesh evaluation participated in a roundtable discussion about today’s unmet needs in hernia repair, including what constitutes an “ideal” hernia repair and the portfolio of “ideal” mesh prostheses. Defining characteristics of lightweight mesh, mesh alternatives, the surgeon’s role in hernia repair, adverse events, the unmet requirements for today’s hernia repair, and optimized animal models were among the topics discussed.ConclusionThe ideal mesh’s construction is still in progress, but greater understanding of its critical characteristics was explored. It is hoped that these suggestions will lead to the development of improved hernia treatments and a maximally effective portfolio of hernia mesh prostheses.
Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed operations. Next to conventional techniques, open and laparoscopic tension-free methods using mesh implants to reinforce the abdominal wall are increasingly carried out, even becoming the standard procedure in many countries. Because of the benefits of material-reduced meshes for incisional hernia repair, a new mesh modification for tension-free inguinal hernia repair has been developed. In the present study this new low-weight mesh (Vypro II) made of polypropylene and polyglactin multifilaments was compared to a common heavy-weight polypropylene mesh (Prolene) regarding their functional consequences and the morphologic tissue response. After implantation in rats as an inlay, abdominal wall mobility was recorded by three-dimensional photogrammetry and the tensile strength of the suture zone and the mesh itself was measured at 3, 21, and 90 days. Explanted tissue samples have been investigated for their histologic reaction in regard to the inflammatory infiltrate, vascularization, and connective and fat tissue ingrowth. Numbers of granulocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and foreign giant body cells have been evaluated to reflect the quality of the tissue response. The cellular response was assessed by measuring DNA strand breaks and apoptosis (TUNEL), proliferation (Ki67), and cell stress (HSP70). The results indicated that restriction of abdominal wall mobility was significantly reduced with Vypro II compared to that seen with heavy-weight mesh modification, and the inflammatory reaction and connective tissue formation were markedly diminished. Apoptosis and cell proliferation showed considerably lowered levels, and expression of cytoprotective HSP70 was significantly increased. The present study thus confirms the benefits of material-reduced mesh modifications. The new low-weight mesh (Vypro II) could be advantageous in inguinal hernia repair.
The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the long-term recurrence rate and risk factors for inguinal hernia recurrence in patients treated by the Shouldice suture repair. A total of 293 hernias treated by Shouldice suture technique in 1992 were studied retrospectively. After a 10-year follow-up, 15 potential risk factors for recurrence were assessed in 142 patients undergoing 171 Shouldice repairs. Recurrent hernias showed a significantly higher (22.0%) recurrence rate than primary inguinal hernias (7.7%). Furthermore, an age of more than 50 years, smoking, and the presence of two or more similarly affected relatives were found to be independent risk factors for recurrence. The present study underlines the importance of patient-related risk factors for the development of a recurrent inguinal hernia. Patients at risk should preoperatively be identified in order to improve treatment by, for example, the application of mesh techniques.
BackgroundAbnormal collagen metabolism is thought to play an important role in the development of primary inguinal hernia. This is underlined by detection of altered collagen metabolism and structural changes of the tissue in patients with primary inguinal hernia. However, it is still unknown whether these alterations reflect a basic dysfunction of the collagen synthesis, or of collagen degradation.MethodsIn the present study, we analysed type I and type III procollagen messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and MMP-1 and MMP-13 mRNA in cultured fibroblasts from the skin of patients with primary inguinal hernia, and from patients without hernia (controls) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern Blot.ResultsThe results indicated that the ratio of type I to type III procollagen mRNA was decreased in patients with primary hernia, showing significant differences as compared to controls (p = 0.01). This decrease was mainly due to the increase of type III procollagen mRNA. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of MMP-1 mRNA in patients with primary hernia is equivalent to that of controls (p > 0.05). In addition, MMP-13 mRNA is expressed neither in patients with primary hernia nor in controls.ConclusionWe concluded that abnormal change of type I and type III collagen mRNAs contribute to the development of primary inguinal hernia, whereas the expressions of MMP-1 and MMP-13 mRNA appears not to be involved in the development of primary inguinal hernia. Thus, the knowledge on the transcriptional regulation of collagen in patients with primary inguinal hernia may help to understand the pathogenesis of primary inguinal hernia, and implies new therapeutic strategies for this disease.
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