The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of age-period and cohort (APC) of birth on mortality for acute myocardial infarction in Brazil and its geographic regions, according to sex in the period from 1980 to 2009. The data was extracted from the Mortality Information System and was corrected and adjusted by means of proportional redistribution of records with sex and age ignored, ill-defined causes, and corrections were made based on the death sub-register. The APC was calculated using the Poisson regression model with estimable functions. The APC analysis on both sexes and in all regions of the country showed gradual reductions in the risk of death in birth cohorts from the decade of the 1940s, except in the Northeast. In this region, there have been progressive increases in the risk of death from the late 1940s for both sexes. This was up until the 1950s for men and the 1960s for women. It was concluded that the observed differences in the risk of death in Brazilian regions is the result of socio-economic inequalities and poor access to health services within the Brazilian territory, favoring early mortality for this cause especially in poorer areas.
The aim of this study is to estimate the effects of age-period-birth cohort (APC) on
Many human cancers develop as a result of exposure to risk factors related to the environment and ways of life. The aim of this study was to estimate attributable fractions of 25 types of cancers resulting from exposure to modifiable risk factors in Brazil. The prevalence of exposure to selected risk factors among adults was obtained from population-based surveys conducted from 2000 to 2008. Risk estimates were based on data drawn from meta-analyses or large, high quality studies. Population-attributable fractions (PAF) for a combination of risk factors, as well as the number of preventable deaths and cancer cases, were calculated for 2020. The known preventable risk factors studied will account for 34% of cancer cases among men and 35% among women in 2020, and for 46% and 39% deaths, respectively. The highest attributable fractions were estimated for tobacco smoking, infections, low consumption of fruits and vegetables, excess weight, reproductive factors, and physical inactivity. This is the first study to systematically estimate the fraction of cancer attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors in Brazil. Strategies for primary prevention of tobacco smoking and control of infection and the promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity should be the main priorities in policies for cancer prevention in the country.
Este estudo de natureza exploratória descritiva teve como finalidade descrever a opinião dos discentes quanto à forma e conteúdo de um site educacional e a aplicação deste como recurso instrucional no ensino da Disciplina de Didática em Enfermagem de um Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem de uma escola do município de São Paulo. Os sujeitos do estudo foram alunos matriculados nessa disciplina no primeiro semestre do ano letivo de 2003. Os resultados do estudo demonstraram que os discentes apresentam prontidão ao uso da informática e são favoráveis à adoção de novas metodologias de ensino mediadas pelo computador na enfermagem, na perspectiva de ampliar e diversificar as formas de comunicação entre professores e alunos.
Objective: To analyze the influence of shift work on blood pressure, the presence of burnout and common mental disorders in nursing professionals. Method: A cross-sectional study. Burnout was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Common Mental Disorders by the Self-Reporting Questionnaire. Casual blood pressure measurement and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) were performed. Results: 231 professionals participated. The majority (59.7%) worked in shifts, and this condition was associated (p≤0.05) with: higher weekly workload; doing the night shift; shorter training and work time at the institution; alcoholism; leisure activity; and alteration in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring of the sleep period. The professionals with common mental disorders and who worked in shifts had lower casual diastolic pressure levels (p = 0.039) and higher hypertension prevalence (p = 0.045). The presence of emotional exhaustion was associated with normal waking blood pressure and depersonalization with altered sleep blood pressure. Conclusion: Shift work was associated with a higher prevalence of work-related negative factors, inadequate habits and lifestyles, and change in sleep blood pressure.
Regional differences were demonstrated in the mortality rates for gastric cancer in Brazil, and the least developed regions of the country will present increases in projected mortality rates.
Objective: to analyze the temporal trend of the homicide rate of women in the states of Northeastern Brazil. Methods: ecological study of temporal trend. Data were the 25,332 feminicide deaths recorded in the Mortality Information System. A temporal trend analysis was performed using negative binomial regression. Results: after the correction steps, there was an increase of approximately 17.0% in deaths, corresponding to the standardized average rate of 4.7/100,000 women. There were higher mortality rates in women in the second and third decades of life. Higher average rates per 100,000 women were observed in the states of Pernambuco (8.25) and Alagoas (6.32). An increase in mortality rates in all the states of the analyzed region, in the period verified was evidenced, with the exception of Sergipe. Conclusion: a high magnitude of feminicide rates and ascendant trends were observed in most states in the Northeast Region of Brazil.
BackgroundThe Brazilian indigenous population is currently undergoing a process of epidemiological transition regarding the occurrence of communicable diseases, malnutrition and non-communicable chronic diseases. Chronic non-infectious diseases are the most common causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is one of the main cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, the main objective of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, with an emphasis on hypertension, in the Mura Indians living in the municipality of Autazes in the northern Brazilian state of Amazonas.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted among 455 natives (57.8% women, 42.2 ± 16.7 years) selected by simple random sampling. Sociodemographic variables, habits and lifestyles, anthropometric data, fasting glycaemia and lipid profiles were evaluated. Blood pressure was measured with a validated automatic device. Values of p ≤ 0.05 were considered significant.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension was 26.6%. The other cardiovascular risk factors were as follows: increased waist-hip ratio (85.1%); increased neck circumference (60.2%); increased waist circumference (48.6%); overweight (57.1%); physical inactivity (52.7%); use of alcoholic beverages (40.2%); high total cholesterol (27.5%); increased triglycerides (23.5%); smoking (20.4%); and diabetes mellitus (3.0%). In relation to non-hypertensive individuals, indigenous hypertensive individuals were (p ≤ 0.05) older and had a higher proportion of individuals living with partners and individuals who were retired, as well as a lower level of schooling and higher family income. The indigenous people living in urban areas had a higher prevalence of hypertension than did those living in rural areas. In relation to habits and lifestyles, hypertensive Indians had a lower prevalence of smoking, higher frequency of the use of animal fat during meal preparation, lower frequency of vegetable oil use and lower frequency of salt addition to already-prepared meals. An assessment of anthropometric variables and laboratory markers showed that the hypertensive indigenous individuals had higher values of body mass index, neck circumference, waist circumference, visceral fat, Conicity Index, and body fat than did the non-hypertensive individuals.ConclusionThe prevalence of hypertension and other important cardiovascular risk factors in the Mura Indians was high. This finding is probably due to the adoption of inappropriate habits and lifestyles.
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