The results showed that shape changes of the sheet during thermoforming tend to concentrically and almost uniformly expand from the center and that it is important to center the sheet and the model when positioning the model in the forming unit.
The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the thickness of mouthguard sheets under different heating conditions during fabrication. Mouthguards were fabricated with polyolefin-polystyrene co-polymer (OS) and olefin co-polymer (OL) sheets (4.0-mm thick) utilizing a vacuum-forming machine under the following three conditions: (A) the sheet was moulded when it sagged 15 mm below the sheet frame (i.e. the normally used position); (B) the sheet frame was lowered to and heated at 30 mm below the top of the post and moulded when it sagged by 15 mm; and (C) the sheet frame was lowered to and heated at 50 mm below the top of the post and moulded when it sagged by 15 mm. The working model was trimmed to a height of 20 mm at the incisor and 15 mm at the first molar. Post-moulding thickness was determined for the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp, central groove and buccal surface). Dimensions were measured, and differences in the change in thickness due to heating condition were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Under condition C, OS and OL decreased in thickness from 0.36-0.54 mm to 0.26-0.30 mm, respectively, at the incisal portion and from 0.34-0.66 mm to 0.17-0.47 mm, respectively, at the molar portion. It may be clinically useful when moulding a mouthguard to maintain the thickness of the incisal and molar portions by adjusting the height of the sheet frame.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in thickness of a working model mouthguard sheet due to different shape. Mouthguards were fabricated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) sheets (4.0 mm thick) using a vacuum-forming machine. Two shapes of the sheet were compared: normal sheet or v-shaped groove 10-40 mm from the anterior end. Additionally, two shapes of the working model were compared; the basal plane was vertical to the tooth axis of the maxillary central incisor (condition A), and the occlusal plane was parallel to the basal plane (condition B). Sheets were heated until they sagged 15 mm below the clamp. Postmolding thickness was determined for the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp and buccal surface). Differences in the change in thickness due to the shape of the sheets and model were analyzed using two-way anova followed by a Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests. The thickness of the mouthguard sheet with v-shaped grooves was more than that of the normal sheet at all measuring points under condition A and condition B (P < 0.01). The thickness of condition B was less than that of condition A, there the incisal portion in the normal sheet and the incisal edge in the sheet with v-shaped grooves (P < 0.01). The present results suggested that thickness after molding was secured by the use of the sheet with v-shaped grooves. In particular, the model with the undercut on the labial surface may be clinically useful.
The present study suggests that the Shore A hardness and thickness after formation varied depending upon the colors of the EVA sheets and manufactures. A correlation between the hardness and change of thickness was observed in two manufactures that suggests that the hard sheets tend to reduce in thickness greater than that in softer ones.
Within the limitation of this study, it was suggested that when forming a mouthguard using a 4.0-mm EVA sheet and a circle tray on a vacuum forming machine, the sheet should be formed at a sagging distance of 10-mm.
When molding a mouthguard using an EVA sheet, the thickness of the incisal and molar portions of the mouthguard can be maintained by adjusting the height of the sheet frame and heating conditions, which may be clinically useful.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the thermal shrinkage to thickness of the mouthguard with the heating method by the setting position of a sheet and the working model using an ethylene vinyl acetate sheet prepared by extrusion. Mouthguards were fabricated with EVA sheets (4.0 mm thick) using a vacuum-forming machine. Two forming conditions were compared: the square sheet was pinched by the clamping frame attached to the forming machine (S); and the round sheet was pinched at the top and bottom and stabilized by the circle tray (R). The sheet was aligned to make the sheet's extrusion direction vertical (V) or parallel (P) to the midline of the working model. The following two heating conditions were compared: (i) the sheet was molded when it sagged 15 mm below the level of the sheet frame measured at the top of the post in condition S (S-0), or that sagged 10 mm in condition R (R-0) in the usual position; (ii) the sheet frame was lowered by 50 mm from the ordinary height (S-50, R-50). Postmolding thickness was determined using a measuring device. Measurement points were the incisal and molar portion. Differences in the change of thickness of mouthguards molded under different heating conditions and extrusion directions for each sheet shape were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (anova). The results of this study showed that by lowering the height of the sheet frame, the difference of the sheet temperature of each part was reduced. Among all sheets, condition V produced under S-50 and R-50 had the largest thickness independently of shape sheet. Furthermore, thickness reduction is effectively suppressed by aligning the direction of the extruded sheet to be vertical to the midline of the model.
The aim of this study was to investigate vacuum forming techniques for reduction of loss in mouthguard thickness effects of sheet grooving and thermal shrinkage of extruded sheets on molded mouthguard thickness. Mouthguards were fabricated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) sheets (4.0 mm thick) using a vacuum forming machine. Sheet form was a convexing v-shaped groove toward the back, 10-40 mm from the anterior end. The sheets were placed in the forming machine with the sheet extrusion direction either vertical or parallel to the model's centerline of right and left. Molding was performed by crimping the sheet using suction when the most descending portion of the sheet sagged downwards from the clamp, 15 mm below the basal surface. Postmolding thickness was determined using a measuring device. Measurement points were the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp and buccal surface). Differences in molded mouthguard thickness with the sheet orientation of extruded EVA sheets were analyzed by student's t-test. The sheet in parallel axis orientation with the model's centerline yielded higher thickness than vertical orientation at the labial surface and the buccal surface. The present results suggested that addition of a groove to the sheet in conjunction with placement of the sheet with its axis of orientation parallel the centerline of the working model can effectively reduce thickness loss in the molded mouthguard with the equipment and materials used in this study.
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