Inspiration of a high concentration of oxygen, a therapy for acute lung injury (ALI), could unexpectedly lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (HALI). Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat PYD-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) senses the ROS, triggering inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production and secretion. However, the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in HALI is unclear. The main aim of this study is to determine the effect of NLRP3 gene deletion on inflammatory response and lung epithelial cell death. Wild-type (WT) and NLRP3(-/-) mice were exposed to 100% O2 for 48-72 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissues were examined for proinflammatory cytokine production and lung inflammation. Hyperoxia-induced lung pathological score was suppressed in NLRP3(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. Hyperoxia-induced recruitment of inflammatory cells and elevation of IL-1β, TNFα, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were attenuated in NLRP3(-/-) mice. NLRP3 deletion decreased lung epithelial cell death and caspase-3 levels and a suppressed NF-κB levels compared with WT controls. Taken together, this research demonstrates for the first time that NLRP3-deficient mice have suppressed inflammatory response and blunted lung epithelial cell apoptosis to HALI.
In the present study we investigated cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac complications in mice subjected to hyperoxia. Results demonstrate that there is a significant increase in average heart weight to tibia length (22%) in mice subjected to hyperoxia treatment vs. normoxia. Functional assessment was performed in mice subjected to hyperoxic treatment, and results demonstrate impaired cardiac function with decreased cardiac output and heart rate. Staining of transverse cardiac sections clearly demonstrates an increase in the cross-sectional area from hyperoxic hearts compared with control hearts. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis indicated differential mRNA and protein expression levels between hyperoxia-treated and control left ventricles for ion channels including Kv4.2 (Ϫ2 Ϯ 0.08), Kv2.1 (2.54 Ϯ 0.48), and Scn5a (1.4 Ϯ 0.07); chaperone KChIP2 (Ϫ1.7 Ϯ 0.06); transcriptional factors such as GATA4 (Ϫ1.5 Ϯ 0.05), Irx5 (5.6 Ϯ 1.74), NFB1 (4.17 Ϯ 0.43); hypertrophy markers including MHC-6 (2.17 Ϯ 0.36) and MHC-7 (4.62 Ϯ 0.76); gap junction protein Gja1 (4.4 Ϯ 0.8); and microRNA processing enzyme Drosha (4.6 Ϯ 0.58). Taken together, the data presented here clearly indicate that hyperoxia induces left ventricular remodeling and hypertrophy and alters the expression of Kv4.2 and MHC6/7 in the heart. ion channel regulation; hyperoxia; heart; hypertrophy; potassium channel; redox PATIENTS in critical or intensive care units (ICU) with acute lung injury or cardiac disease are often administered 100% O 2 for treatment. Recent studies indicate that hyperoxia induces cardiac injury due to dysfunctional lung and compromised pulmonary functioning (37), even though the exact nature of this problem remains unknown. Here, we evaluated changes in expression of the ion channel and key transcriptional factors in the heart that occur with hyperoxia and likely play a role in cardiovascular remodeling.Potassium channels and their auxiliary subunits such as potassium channel interacting protein-2 (KChIP2) are abundantly expressed in the heart (5, 7, 35). It is established that the potassium channels Kv4.2 and Kv1.5 are responsive to oxygen changes (29, 39). In the present study, we investigate whether hyperoxia alters expression of the transcription factors Irx5 and Mef2c, which are implicated to play a direct role in regulating Kv4.2 expression (7,15,22). Cardiac-specific markers used to identify hypertrophy and transcriptional changes (9, 22) were also evaluated by assessing myosin heavy chain-6, and -7 (MHC6, MHC7), zinc finger transcription factor (GATA4), histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (Ezh2), and Six-1 expression levels with hyperoxia.Key inflammatory mediators such as TNF␣ and NFB are central regulators or master switches for many pathological processes (10,20,30). Recent evidence indicates that NFB regulates KChIP2, which in turn regulates Kv4.2 expression (26). Therefore we assessed the levels of Kv4.2, KChIP2, and NFB in the mouse heart subjected to hyperoxia. We hypothesized that hyperoxia induces cardi...
Acute lung injury (ALI), which presents as acute respiratory failure, is a major clinical problem that requires aggressive care, and patients who require prolonged oxygen exposure are at risk of developing this disease. Although molecular determinants of ALI have been reported, the molecules involved in disease catabasis associated with oxygen toxicity have not been well studied. It has been reported that lung mucosa is rich in omega-3 fatty acid dicosahexanoic acid (DHA), which has antiinflammatory properties. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) is a potent proresolution metabolite of DHA that can curb the inflammatory effects in various acute injuries, yet the effect of AT-RvD1 on hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) or in the oxygen toxicity setting in general has not been investigated. The effects of AT-RvD1 on HALI were determined for the first time in 8- to 10-week-old C57BL/6 mice that were exposed to hyperoxia (≥95% O2) for 48 hours. Mice were given AT-RvD1 (100 ng) in saline or a saline vehicle for 24 hours in normoxic (≈21% O2) conditions after hyperoxia. Lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected for analysis associated with proinflammatory signaling and lung inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment resulted in reduced oxidative stress, increased glutathione production, and significantly decreased tissue inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment also significantly reduced the lung wet/dry ratio, protein in BAL fluid, and decreased apoptotic and NF-κB signaling. These results show that AT-RvD1 curbs oxygen-induced lung edema, permeability, inflammation, and apoptosis and is thus an effective therapy for prolonged hyperoxia exposure in this murine model.
Amphiregulin, an EGF receptor (EGFR) ligand, is essential for epithelial development in various organs. A recent report suggested that amphiregulin acts as a protective factor in a liver injury model. Little is known about the roles of amphiregulin in lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of amphiregulin in an experimental model of bleomycin-induced pneumopathy in mice. C57BL/6 mice were administered a bleomycin hydrochloride solution intratracheally. Recombinant human amphiregulin was injected intraperitoneally at 6, 8, 10, and 12 days after the bleomycin instillation. The grades of inflammation and fibrosis were assessed histologically and biochemically, and the numbers of apoptotic cells were counted after TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining in the lung tissues. We also examined downstream survival signals of EGFR, namely phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated Erk, in lung tissues by Western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry. Expression of intrinsic amphiregulin was increased in murine lung tissues after bleomycin instillation. Administration of recombinant amphiregulin improved the survival rate and suppressed the degrees of inflammation and fibrosis and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in lung tissues. Amphiregulin treatment enhanced the activation of Akt and Erk in lung epithelial cells. Amphiregulin may play a protective role in bleomycin-induced pneumopathy in mice, probably through the activation of survival signals. Administration of amphiregulin may be a novel therapeutic strategy against lung injury and fibrosis.
Critically ill patients are commonly treated with high levels of oxygen, hyperoxia, for prolonged periods of time. Unfortunately, extended exposure to hyperoxia can exacerbate respiratory failure and lead to a high mortality rate. Mitochondrial A-kinase anchoring protein (Akap) has been shown to regulate mitochondrial function. It has been reported that, under hypoxic conditions, Akap121 undergoes proteolytic degradation and promotes cardiac injury. However, the role of Akap1 in hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is largely unknown. To address this gap in our understanding of Akap1, we exposed wild-type ( wt) and Akap1 mice to 100% oxygen for 48 h, a time point associated with lung damage in the murine model of ALI. We found that under hyperoxia, Akap1 mice display increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, immune cell infiltration, and protein leakage in lungs, as well as increased alveolar capillary permeability compared with wt controls. Further analysis revealed that Akap1 deletion enhances lung NF-κB p65 activity as assessed by immunoblotting and DNA-binding assay and mitochondrial autophagy-related markers, PINK1 and Parkin. Ultrastructural analysis using electron microscopy revealed that Akap1 deletion was associated with remarkably aberrant mitochondria and lamellar bodies in type II alveolar epithelial cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Akap1 genetic deletion increases the severity of hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in mice.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an age-related multifactorial disease featuring non-uniform lung fibrosis. The decisive cellular events at early stages of IPF are poorly understood. While the involvement of club cells in IPF pathogenesis is unclear, their migration has been associated with lung fibrosis. In this study, we labeled club cells immunohistochemically in IPF lungs using a club cell marker Claudin-10 (Cldn10), a unique protein based on the recent report which demonstrated that the appearance of Cldn10 in developing and repairing lungs precedes other club cell markers including club cell secretory protein (CCSP). Cldn10-positive cells in IPF lungs displayed marked pleomorphism and were found in varied arrangements, suggesting their phenoconversion. These results were corroborated by immunogold labeling for Cldn10. Further, immunohistochemical double-labeling for Cldn10 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) demonstrated that aberrant α-SMA signals are frequently encountered near disorganized Cldn10-positive cells in hyperplastic bronchiolar epithelium and thickened interstitium of IPF lungs. Collectively, these data indicate that club cells actively participate in the initiation and progression of IPF through phenoconversion involving the acquisition of proliferative and migratory abilities. Thus, our new findings open the possibility for club cell-targeted therapy to become a strategic option for the treatment of IPF.
BackgroundInflammation is a key hallmark of ALI and is mediated through ungoverned cytokine signaling. One such cytokine, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) has been demonstrated to be the most bioactive cytokine in ALI patients. Macrophages are the key players responsible for IL-1β secretion into the alveolar space. Following the binding of IL-1β to its receptor, “activated” alveolar epithelial cells show enhanced barrier dysfunction, adhesion molecule expression, cytokine secretion, and leukocyte attachment. More importantly, it is an important communication molecule between the macrophage and alveolar epithelium. While the molecular determinants of this inflammatory event have been well documented, endogenous resolution processes that decrease IL-1β secretion and resolve alveolar epithelial cell activation and tissue inflammation have not been well characterized. Lipid mediator Aspirin-Triggered Resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) has demonstrated potent pro-resolutionary effects in vivo models of lung injury; however, the contribution of the alveoli to the protective benefits of this molecule has not been well documented. In this study, we demonstrate that AT-RvD1 treatment lead to a significant decrease in oxidant induced macrophage IL-1β secretion and production, IL-1β-mediated cytokine secretion, adhesion molecule expression, leukocyte adhesion and inflammatory signaling.MethodsTHP-1 macrophages were treated with hydrogen peroxide and extracellular ATP in the presence or absence of AT-RvD1 (1000–0.1 nM). A549 alveolar-like epithelial cells were treated with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of AT-RvD1 (0.1 μM). Following treatment, cell lysate and cell culture supernatants were collected for Western blot, qPCR and ELISA analysis of pro-inflammatory molecules. Functional consequences of IL-1β induced alveolar epithelial cell and macrophage activation were also measured following treatment with IL-1β ± AT-RvD1.ResultsResults demonstrate that macrophages exposed to H2O2 and ATP in the presence of resolvins show decreased IL-1β production and activity. A549 cells treated with IL-1β in the presence of AT-RvD1 show a reduced level of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. Further, IL-1β-mediated adhesion molecule expression was also reduced with AT-RvD1 treatment, which was correlated with decreased leukocyte adhesion. AT-RvD1 treatment demonstrated reduced MAP-Kinase signaling. Taken together, our results demonstrate AT-RvD1 treatment reduced IL-1β-mediated alveolar epithelial cell activation. This is a key step in unraveling the protective effects of resolvins, especially AT-RvD1, during injury.
Incomplete clearance of apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) release are known to trigger inflammasome activation causing severe inflammation in acute lung injury and various metabolic and autoimmune diseases. Moreover, it has been reported that apoptotic cell clearance and ROS-mediated apoptosis critically depend on mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2). However, the relationship between UCP2 and inflammasome activation has not been studied. This report investigates the role of UCP2 in the expression and activation of NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in human macrophages. We found that UCP2 overexpression significantly enhanced the expression levels of NLRP3. The NLRP3 expression levels were significantly suppressed in THP1 cells treated with genipin, a UCP2 inhibitor, compared to controls. In addition, genipin altered adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) secretion and significantly suppressed caspase-1 activity in inflammasome-activated human macrophages. Taken together, our results suggest that genipin modulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ATP- or H2O2-mediated IL-1β release.
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