ObjectiveTo determine the expression pattern of certain metalloproteinases (MMPs) known to be involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix in cultured fibroblasts from the transversalis fascia (TF) of patients with inguinal hernia.
Summary Background DataInguinal hernia is a common pathology, the cause of which remains unknown. It is, however, clear that the TF is one of the anatomical structures that may impede the formation of hernias, and particularly the direct type of hernia. In previous studies the authors found enhanced MMP-2 expression in TF specimens in vivo. The persistence of increased expression in cultured fibroblasts might support the idea of a genetic defect as the cause for this pathology.
MethodsFibroblasts from the TF of patients with direct and indirect inguinal hernia were cultured and compared with those obtained from control TF in terms of MMP (MMP-2 and MMP-9) expression.
ResultsSignificant active MMP-2 expression was shown by TF fibroblasts from young patients with direct hernias. These findings were confirmed by immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and zymography of the fibroblast culture media. No MMP-9 expression was detected.
ConclusionThese results indicate that MMP-2 may be involved in the TF matrix degradative process in patients with direct hernia. The persistence of changes in MMP-2 levels in the cell cultures appears to suggest a genetic defect or irreversible change as the origin of this pathology rather than environmental factors, which may later participate in the development of the hernial process.Inguinal hernias are among the disorders that most frequently require surgery: their repair accounts for 10% to 15% of all general surgical procedures.1 Although the cause remains unknown, it has been established that the integrity of the abdominal wall in the groin area is dependent on the transversalis fascia (TF), the oblique orientation of the inguinal canal, and a sphincterlike structure of the internal ring.
2Despite numerous predisposing factors, including anatomical features (persistence of the peritoneal-vaginal conduit, high insertion point of the transverse arch) and those associated with other diseases (obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, constipation), the underlying cause of the development of the different types of hernias is of a biologic nature. Research aimed at evaluating the role played by biologic factors has centered on possible alterations in connective tissue metabolism. This idea is also supported by the fact that diseases such as Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, cutis laxa, osteogenesis imperfecta, 3 and congenital hip dislocation 4 have been associated with hernial processes.Tissue specimens from patients with hernias for this type of experimental study include the abdominal anterior rectus muscle sheath, 5 cremaster, hernial sac, 6 and even skin tis-
The aim of this study was to examine the fascia transversalis (FT) from patients with direct and indirect hernia in an attempt to identify possible differences between each type of hernia. FT samples were obtained from 36 patients presenting inguinal hernia (23 indirect hernia and 13 direct hernia) who underwent surgery. We have analysed the ultrastructure of the fascia surrounding the hernial lesions, the proline and lysine hydroxylation in the tissue, the type I-type III collagen ratio and the presence of metalloproteinases. We have not detected ultrastructural differences in the collagen fibrils from FT in direct and indirect hernias. However, the interfibrillar matrix was more abundant in direct hernias, showing abundant electron-dense particles. No differences in proline hydroxylation were observed between each type of hernia. A small decrease in lysine hydroxylation was detected in patients with direct hernia. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) showed no statistically significant differences in the type I-type III collagen absorbance ratios. Immunohistochemistry revealed no differences in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1. FT from patients presenting direct hernia showed a very strong staining vs. metalloproteinase-2 when compared with that observed in indirect hernia.
BackgroundCyanoacrylate(CA)-based tissue adhesives, although not widely used, are a feasible option to fix a mesh during abdominal hernia repair, due to its fast action and great bond strength. Their main disadvantage, toxicity, can be mitigated by increasing the length of their alkyl chain. The objective was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility in hernia repair of CAs currently used in clinical practice (Glubran(n-butyl) and Ifabond(n-hexyl)) and a longer-chain CA (OCA(n-octyl)), that has never been used in the medical field.MethodsFormaldehyde release and cytotoxicity of unpolymerized(UCAs) and polymerized CAs(PCAs) were evaluated by macroscopic visual assessment, flow cytometry and Alamar Blue assays. In the preclinical evaluation, partial defects were created in the rabbit abdominal wall and repaired by fixing polypropylene prostheses using the CAs. At 14 days post-surgery, animals were euthanized for morphology, macrophage response and cell damage analyses.ResultsFormaldehyde release was lower as the molecular weight of the monomer increased. The longest side-chain CA(OCA) showed the highest cytotoxicity in the UCA condition. However, after polymerization, was the one that showed better behavior on most occasions. In vivo, all CAs promoted optimal mesh fixation without displacements or detachments. Seroma was evident with the use of Glubran, (four of six animals: 4/6) and Ifabond (2/6), but it was reduced with the use of OCA (1/6). Significantly greater macrophage responses were observed in groups where Glubran and Ifabond were used vs. sutures and OCA. TUNEL-positive cells were significantly higher in the Glubran and OCA groups vs. the suture group.ConclusionsAlthough mild formaldehyde release occurred, OCA was the most cytotoxic during polymerization but the least once cured. The CAs promoted proper mesh fixation and have potential to replace traditional suturing techniques in hernia repair; the CAs exhibited good tissue integration and effective short-term biocompatibility, with the slightest seroma and macrophage response induced by OCA.
Background: Although the etiology of venous insufficiency is not well understood, immune response and aging are beginning to emerge as contributing factors. Factors involved in tissue remodeling such as TGF-β1 also seem to play an important role in extracellular matrix production. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between chronic venous insufficiency and TGF-β1 examining the latent/mature form of TGF-β1 and the presence of mast cells. Effects of age were also evaluated. Methods: Saphenous veins were obtained from patients subjected to aortocoronary bypass (controls) and undergoing varicose vein surgery. These were immunolabeled using anti-LAP TGF-β1/anti-TGF-β1 antibodies and subjected to Western blot. Mast cell population was identified by metachromatic staining.Results:Latent TGF-β1 was significantly reduced in varicose veins from older subjects. In contrast, smooth muscle cells obtained from the varicosities showed intense levels. Mature TGF-β1 significantly differed between healthy and varicose veins. No mature TGF-β1 was detected in the cell cultures. Mast cell number and degranulation were increased with aging and varicose disease, colocalizing with the mature form of TGF-β1. Conclusion: Aging and varicose pathology induce dysregulation of TGF-β1 that could play an important role in the fibrous process, representing the final stages of venous insufficiency.
This study evaluates possible changes in the synthesis/degradation of elastic components of the vein wall in an attempt to explain the development of varicosis. Healthy and varicose saphenous veins were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using anti-elastin, anti-fibrillin-1, anti-elastase, anti-transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and anti-latent TGFbeta binding protein (LTBP)-2 monoclonal antibodies. In situ hybridization was performed using specific probes for tropoelastin and fibrillin-1. In healthy veins, elastin and fibrillin-1 showed even, overlapping distribution patterns indicating their particular abundance in the adventitia and at the intima/media interface. The expression of tropoelastin and fibrillin-1 was high in smooth muscle cells bordering the elastic laminae. Elastin, fibrillin-1, and cells expressing fibrillin-1 and tropoelastin mRNA showed a patchy disorganized pattern, particularly in the proximal varicose segments of patients under 50 years of age. Enhanced elastase activity was noted in both control and varicose specimens from elderly subjects. Varicose veins specimens showed greater LTBP-2 and TGF expression. Both molecules were detected in the subendothelium and the media, particularly in areas of marked injury. Our findings suggest that the development of the varicose condition involves a restructuring of the elastic component of the vein wall, perhaps as a consequence of changes in the transcription mechanisms of muscle layer cells.
At 14 days postimplant, laminar prostheses and composites showed similar results in terms of adhesion formation and integration within host tissue. Our findings suggest that both the composite prostheses and the laminar ePTFE performed very well in terms of reduced adhesion formation at the peritoneal interface.
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