The transcription factor Pdx1 is expressed in the pancreatic ␤-cell, where it is believed to regulate several ␤-cell-specific genes. Whereas binding by Pdx1 to elements of ␤-cell genes has been demonstrated in vitro, almost none of these genes has been demonstrated to be a direct binding target for Pdx1 within cells (where complex chromatin structure exists). To determine which ␤-cell promoters are bound by Pdx1 in vivo, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using Pdx1 antiserum and chromatin from ␤-TC3 cells and Pdx1-transfected NIH3T3 cells and subsequently quantitated co-immunoprecipitated promoters using realtime PCR. We compared these in vivo findings to parallel immunoprecipitations in which Pdx1 was allowed to bind to promoter fragments in in vitro reactions. Our results show that in all cells Pdx1 binds strongly to the insulin, islet amyloid polypeptide, glucagon, Pdx1, and Pax4 promoters, whereas it does not bind to either the glucose transporter type 2 or albumin promoters. In addition, no binding by Pdx1 to the glucokinase promoter was observed in ␤-cells. In contrast, in in vitro immunoprecipitations, Pdx1 bound all promoters to an extent approximately proportional to the number of Pdx1 binding sites. Our findings suggest a critical role for chromatin structure in directing the promoter binding selectivity of Pdx1 in ␤-cells and non-␤-cells.
Inherent to helical tomotherapy is a dose variation pattern that manifests as a "ripple" ͑peak-totrough relative to the average͒. This ripple is the result of helical beam junctioning, completely unique to helical tomotherapy. Pitch is defined as in helical CT, the couch travel distance for a complete gantry rotation relative to the axial beam width at the axis of rotation. Without scattering or beam divergence, an analytical posing of the problem as a simple integral predicts minima near a pitch of 1 / n where n is an integer. A convolution-superposition dose calculator ͑TomoTherapy, Inc.͒ included all the physics needed to explore the ripple magnitude versus pitch and beam width. The results of the dose calculator and some benchmark measurements demonstrate that the ripple has sharp minima near p = 0.86͑1/n͒. The 0.86 factor is empirical and caused by a beam junctioning of the off-axis dose profiles which differ from the axial profiles as well as a long scatter tail of the profiles at depth. For very strong intensity modulation, the 0.86 factor may vary. The authors propose choosing particular minima pitches or using a second delivery that starts 180 deg off-phase from the first to reduce these ripples: "Double threading." For current typical pitches and beam widths, however, this effect is small and not clinically important for most situations. Certain extremely large field or high pitch cases, however, may benefit from mitigation of this effect.
Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) have been foregrounded as structures with exceptional, intrinsic chemical and thermal stability. However, there has yet to be a systematic study of the isothermal stability of ZIFs, specifically the well-studied ZIF-8. In this work, ZIF-8 isothermal TGA decomposition kinetics were studied in air, argon, H 2 /CO 2 , and nitrogen environments by exposing ZIF-8 to each gas for 20 h at temperatures of 200, 250, and 300 °C, respectively. ZIF-8 crystallinity was preserved under the experimental isothermal conditions at 200 °C in each atmosphere, but crystallinity was increasingly eliminated at higher temperatures. Decomposition kinetics data show that the rate of ZIF-8 carbonization significantly increases at temperatures above 200 °C irrespective of environment. ZIF-8 decomposition in the H 2 /CO 2 reducing mixture exhibits the slowest decomposition kinetics at all temperatures and the greatest morphological change. At 300 °C, oxidative effects enhance ZIF-8 decomposition in air. At lower temperatures the decomposition rate in air behaves more similarly to that of nitrogen and argon. Arrhenius activation energy parameters enable postulation that the temperature dependency of ZIF-8 thermal decomposition after carbonization at 300 °C is more similar upon decomposition in inert and reducing environments as compared to decomposition in oxidizing atmosphere. Four chemical equations inferring the residual carbonized ZIF structure after decomposition at 300 °C were developed based upon EDS quantification and FTIR/azirine formation models. The FTIR/azirine derived model postulates a heterogeneous carbonized ZIF-8 structure containing 2-methylimidazole and azirine rings coordinated to zinc and more precisely agreed with TGA weight decomposition data than the EDS derived model.
The results of this study suggest that MMC is an effective adjuvant in the treatment of LTS. The results of this study provide strong supporting evidence that topical MMC is an effective adjuvant in the treatment of LTS.
The most common products obtained in the synthesis of zirconium-based metal−organic frameworks (ZrMOFs) are fine powders. The particle size of a typical ZrMOF UiO-66 was first reported to be around 200 nm, so the original crystal structure was only solved by powder XRD coupled with Rietveld refinement due to the incapability of single crystal XRD to solve such small crystals with poor crystallinity. One may ask the reason why the particle size of UiO-66 is so small compared to that of other common MOFs and what the key factor terminating the growth of UiO-66 is. In this work, we try to answer this question by proposing a hypothesis that the partially deprotonated ligand caused by the accumulated protons in the reaction solution is the key factor preventing the continuous growth of the UiO-66 crystal. The hypothesis is verified by growth reactivation with the addition of a deprotonating agent in an in situ biphase solvothermal reaction. As long as the protons were sufficiently coordinated by the deprotonating agent, the continuous growth of UiO-66 is guaranteed. Moreover, the modulation effect can impact the coordination equilibrium and nucleation so that an oriented attachment growth of UiO-66 film was achieved in membrane structures.
Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 or ZIF-8 membranes have shown great promise in separating propylene/propane (C3) mixtures; however far fewer works have analyzed ethylene/ethane (C2) transport behavior in ZIF-8 membranes. This work studies C2 permeation behavior, transport properties, and selectivity as a function of temperature and pressure in single and binary gas mixtures. In single and binary separation tests conducted from 25 to 100 °C, the permeances of ethylene and ethane show a negative correlation with temperature attributable to activation energies of diffusion (E d) for ethylene and ethane (11.7 and 13.2 kJ/mol) that are lower than their respective heats of adsorption (16.2 and 17.1 kJ/mol). Low E d values are observed for C2 molecules in ZIF-8 due to pore flexibility. C2 diffusive selectivity is limited in ZIF-8 due to the similar size of C2 molecules which are both smaller than the effective ZIF-8 pore aperture (low energetic selectivity) and sizable entropic selectivity is limited by the zeolitic pore shape. Binary selectivity is 20% lower than ideal selectivity due to cooperative adsorption, which enhances ethane adsorption in the presence of ethylene. The presence of relatively stronger adsorbing C2 molecules in mixture with hydrogen decreases H2 permeability and inverts the H2 temperature dependency of permeation from adsorption controlled to diffusion controlled. In single and binary C2 pressure dependent experiments performed between 1 and 4 atm, starkly contrasting ethylene/ethane separation profiles are observed due to differences in single and binary adsorption isotherms for C2 molecules. The ZIF-8 structure is amenable to adsorption/pressure induced distortions which greatly affect C2 permeation behavior.
The thermal stability of ZIF membranes is important for high temperature separation applications but has not been systematically studied. This work highlights the results of a thermal stability study of ZIF-8 membranes in terms of material structure, H 2 /CO 2 gas permeation and separation characteristics. During binary and single gas temperature dependent permeance tests conducted from 25-250 o C, both H 2 and CO 2 permeances decrease as a function of temperature. In the binary test, H 2 /CO 2 selectivity increases between 25-225 ○ C, and then decreases as temperature is further increased between 225-275 o C. The results can be explained by the adsorption/diffusion mechanism. Beyond 275 ○ C, H 2 /CO 2 permeance and selectivity drastically increase with respect to temperature and is indicative of ZIF-8 membrane partial carbonization during the dynamic 30 hour temperature dependent test. The time/temperature dependency of the onset of ZIF-8 thin film structural change was deconvoluted in isothermal transient permeation experiments. Transient tests performed at 50, 100, 150 and 300 ○ C for 24 hours indicate that ZIF-8 thin films maintain their crystallinity and structural integrity below 150 ○ C. However, at temperatures of 150 ○ C and greater the framework undergoes increased magnitudes of thermally induced carbonization as a function of temperature. Thermomechanically induced stresses between the ZIF-8 membrane thin film and α-alumina support may account for differences in static thermal stability observed when comparing ZIF-8 membranes and ZIF-8 crystalline powders.
SignificanceGas separation by metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes is an emerging research field. Their commercial application potential is, however, still rarely explored due in part to unsatisfied separation characteristics and difficulty in finding suitable applications. Herein, we report "sharp molecular sieving" properties of high quality isoreticular MOF-1 (IRMOF-1) membrane for CO 2 separation from dry, CO 2 enriched CO 2 /CH 4 , and CO 2 /N 2 mixtures. The IRMOF-1 membranes exhibit CO 2 /CH 4 and CO 2 /N 2 separation factors of 328 and 410 with CO 2 permeance of 2.55 3 10 27 and 2.06 3 10 27 mol m 22 s 21 Pa 21 at feed pressure of 505 kPa and 298 K, respectively. High grade CO 2 is efficiently produced from the industrial or lower grade CO 2 feed gas by this MOF membrane separation process. The demonstrated "sharp molecular sieving" properties of the MOF membranes and their potential application in production of valueadded high purity CO 2 should bring new research and development interest in this field.
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