Three hundred twenty-five women with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the breast who had failed one prior chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced disease were randomized to receive 14 mg/m2 of mitoxantrone or 75 mg/m2 of doxorubicin intravenously (IV) every 3 weeks. Enrollment was closed on October 31, 1984, after 165 patients were randomized to mitoxantrone and 160 patients to doxorubicin. Patients randomized to the two treatment groups were compared for response rate, duration of response, time to progression or death, time to treatment failure (TTF), and survival. The response rate to mitoxantrone was 20.6%, to doxorubicin 29.3% (P = .07). The median response duration was 151 days for the mitoxantrone group and 126 days for the doxorubicin group (P = .16). The median TTF was 70 days in the mitoxantrone group and 104 days in the doxorubicin group (P = .36). The median survival of patients initially randomized to receive mitoxantrone was 273 days; for doxorubicin 268 days (P = .40). There were three responses among 77 patients crossed over to mitoxantrone after initial treatment with doxorubicin. The major dose-limiting toxicity for both drugs was leukopenia. There was significantly less severe and less frequent toxicity with mitoxantrone administration. Severe nausea and vomiting occurred in 9.5% of mitoxantrone patients and 25.3% of doxorubicin patients (P less than .001). The incidence of severe stomatitis and mucositis was 0.6% in the mitoxantrone group and 8.4% in the doxorubicin group (P = .001). Severe alopecia occurred in 5.1% of mitoxantrone patients and 61.0% of doxorubicin patients (P less than .001). A life-table comparison of the cumulative dose to the development of a cardiac event showed that mitoxantrone had significantly less cardiotoxicity than doxorubicin (P = .0005). This study demonstrates that mitoxantrone is active as a single agent in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Compared with doxorubicin it appears to be marginally less active and significantly less toxic. We conclude that mitoxantrone can be used alone or with other standard drugs to palliate the symptoms of metastatic breast cancer, especially in settings where drug toxicity is an important consideration.
Mitoxantrone (Novantrone; dihydroxyanthracenedione) is an anthraquinone previously shown to be active in human breast cancer. It appears to have less toxicity than doxorubicin. Results of this phase II-III randomized cross-over trial to determine the relative efficacy and toxicity of mitoxantrone in comparison to doxorubicin, are presented. Patients with measurable, recurrent breast cancer with limited prior chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy for metastatic disease, and who had not been exposed to prior doxorubicin, were randomized to receive either mitoxantrone or doxorubicin every three weeks with cross-over on progression. Response rates, duration of remission, time to treatment failure, and drug toxicity, including cardiac toxicity evaluated with serial radionuclide angiocardiography, were evaluated. Differences in the response rates for the two groups were not statistically significant. Neither time to treatment failure nor duration of response are significantly different (p greater than 0.05). With respect to toxicity, mitoxantrone treated patients consistently exhibited a lower incidence and less severe drug toxicity as compared to their doxorubicin-treated counterparts. Cardiac toxicity was carefully monitored and thus four patients on doxorubicin have had drug related congestive heart failure, as compared to none on mitoxantrone. In summary, mitoxantrone appears to be as active as doxorubicin in patients with stage IV breast cancer previously treated with chemotherapy; however, mitoxantrone causes significantly less nausea, vomiting, stomatitis and alopecia at doses which induce equal or greater myelosuppression than doxorubicin, and appears to be less cardiotoxic.
A study was conducted to determine if cisplatin (CDDP) can be given at higher doses than usual, utilizing aggressive supportive measures. Twelve patients were entered into three dose levels of CDDP: level I, 180 mg/m2 given as a short infusion; level II, 220 mg/m2 also given as a short infusion; level III, 200 mg/m2 divided in five daily doses, each infused over 6 hours. In all cases, CDDP was dissolved and given in 250 ml of a 5% saline solution. For levels I and II, intravenous hydration with 200 to 250 ml/hour D51/2NS with potassium and magnesium supplements, was started 24 hours before therapy and continued for 3 to 4 days after, longer if nausea persisted. Mannitol was given before (25% solution, 50 ml bolus) and after (20% solution, 500 ml over 3 hours) CDDP. At level III hydration with the same intravenous (IV) fluids was begun the day before therapy and continued without interruption at 200 to 250 ml/hour for a minimum of 24 hours after the completion of the 5 days of chemotherapy. Each daily dose of CDDP was preceded by injection of mannitol (25% solution, 50 ml bolus) and accompanied by a 6‐hour infusion of 1000 ml 20% mannitol. Three patients received five CDDP courses at level I; 4 patients, seven courses at level II; and 5 patients, seven courses at level III. Ototoxicity was dose‐limiting in three patients at level II. Transient elevation of serum creatinine was seen following two courses at level I and two courses at level II. The renal impairment was asymptomatic in all cases; dialysis was not needed. At level II, leukocyte nadir counts between 1.0 and 2.0 × 103/mm3 were seen following two courses and between 2.0 and 3.0 × 103/mm3 following three courses. Platelet nadir counts below 50 × 103/mm3 were recorded after four courses and between 50 and 100 × 103/mm3 after one course. Nausea and vomiting occurred frequently, but were tolerable. At level III, myelosuppression was dose‐limiting. Nadir leukocyte counts between 1.0 and 2.0 × 103/mm3 followed four courses and between 2.0 and 3.0 followed one course. Nadir platelet counts below 50 × 103/mm3 were seen after three courses; two patients required prophylactic platelet transfusions. Nadirs between 50 and 100 × 103 platelets/mm3 followed three further courses. Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity did not occur at level III. Responses were seen in all three dose levels in patients with prostate carcinoma, non‐small cell lung cancer, adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. It was concluded that CDDP at a dose of 200 mg/m2, divided in five daily fractions, is tolerable and can be introduced into Phase II trials.
Complete remissions in patients with metastatic breast cancer using endocrine therapy or chemotherapy are infrequent. Breast tumors are known to be heterogeneous with respect to estrogen receptor status, and the low complete remission rate may be related to this biochemical heterogeneity. Based on laboratory experiments using human breast cancer cells in tissue culture, a phase II protocol was designed using tamoxifen, premarin, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil. Thus far, twenty-nine (29) patients have been entered into this study and twenty-five (25) are currently evaluable for response. Overall response rate was 72%, and 14 of 25 (56%) attained a complete remission. Toxicity was minimal. Median nadir white blood cell count was 5,800 and median nadir platelet count was 252,000. In summary, this combination chemo-hormonal therapy regimen is effective with a more than 50% complete remission rate and minimal toxicity.
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with locally advanced or metastatic measurable disease were given a combination of cisplatin, 200 mg/m2 divided in five daily doses, and simultaneously, vinblastine, 7.5 mg/m2 as a continuous intravenous (IV) infusion over five days. Five courses of chemotherapy were planned. Afterwards or on progression, patients were randomized to receive maximally tolerated radiation to all sites of disease v observation only. Forty males and seven females were entered. Median age was 60 years (range, 37 to 74), median Karnofsky performance status was 70 (range, 30 to 90). Five patients had previous brain radiation therapy for metastatic disease, all others were previously untreated. Side effects in the 87 courses of chemotherapy administered included leukopenia (WBC less than 1,000/microL following nine courses) and thrombocytopenia (platelets less than 20,000/microL following four courses). Ten patients became septic, nine of them while leukopenic. Elevations of serum creatinine followed eight courses; in all cases the level was less than 3.0 mg/dL. Nausea and vomiting were mild to moderate. Five patients experienced mild hypoacusis and six had sensory polyneuropathy. The deaths of three patients were considered drug-related. The response rate was 28%. The median survival for the group was 22 weeks, 63.2 weeks for responders and 17.9 weeks for nonresponders. Twenty-six patients received radiation therapy, 16 randomized to this arm as planned, ten to palliate symptoms. Median survival of all irradiated patients was 24.8 weeks. Seven responders to chemotherapy were randomized to receive radiotherapy; their median survival was 25 weeks. In six responders randomized not to receive radiation, the median survival was 77.8 weeks (P greater than .3). Among nonresponding patients, the median survival of those radiated was 22.2 weeks, while that of nonradiated patients was 11 weeks. This regimen is cumbersome and toxic. It has offered no major survival benefits, or improvement in response rates, therefore, we do not recommend it for the standard treatment of NSCLC.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers