Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) interacts with secretory proteins, irrespective of their thiol content, late during translocation into the ER; thus, PDI may be part of the quality control machinery in the ER. We used yeast pdi1 mutants with deletions in the putative peptide binding region of the molecule to investigate its role in the recognition of misfolded secretory proteins in the ER and their export to the cytosol for degradation. Our pdi1 deletion mutants are deficient in the export of a misfolded cysteine-free secretory protein across the ER membrane to the cytosol for degradation, but ER-to-Golgi complex transport of properly folded secretory proteins is only marginally affected. We demonstrate by chemical cross-linking that PDI specifically interacts with the misfolded secretory protein and that mutant forms of PDI have a lower affinity for this protein. In the ER of the pdi1 mutants, a higher proportion of the misfolded secretory protein remains associated with BiP, and in export-deficient sec61 mutants, the misfolded secretory protein remain bounds to PDI. We conclude that the chaperone PDI is part of the quality control machinery in the ER that recognizes terminally misfolded secretory proteins and targets them to the export channel in the ER membrane.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. Online enhancements: appendixes. abstract: How individual-level movement decisions in response to habitat edges influence population-level patterns of persistence and spread of a species is a major challenge in spatial ecology and conservation biology. Here, we integrate novel insights into edge behavior, based on habitat preference and movement rates, into spatially explicit growth-dispersal models. We demonstrate how crucial ecological quantities (e.g., minimal patch size, spread rate) depend critically on these individual-level decisions. In particular, we find that including edge behavior properly in these models gives qualitatively different and intuitively more reasonable results than those of some previous studies that did not consider this level of detail. Our results highlight the importance of new empirical work on individual movement response to habitat edges.
Three elite tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., syn. Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) breeding lines (TOM‐687, TOM‐688, TOM‐689) with high foliar acylsugar (AS) contents were obtained, and used along with two low‐AS lines (TOM‐690, TOM‐684) in hybrid combinations, to obtain six hybrids between one low‐AS line × one high‐AS line (= hybrids with intermediate AS levels), one hybrid between two high‐AS lines (= high‐AS hybrid), and one hybrid between two low‐AS lines (= low‐AS hybrid). These genotypes were tested for resistance to three different tomato pests (spider mites [Tetranychus urticae Koch], silverleaf whitefly [Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring], and the South American tomato pinworm [Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)]) along with hybrid TEX‐154 (low‐AS) and/or Solanum pennellii Correll ‘LA‐716’ (high‐AS wild accession). In all three instances, high‐AS genotypes showed higher levels of pest resistance than low‐AS genotypes. Hybrids with intermediate AS levels showed resistances that were just as high as those of high‐AS genotypes for Bemisia argentifolii and Tuta absoluta, and nearly as good as those for Tetranychus urticae. Acylsugars were confirmed as being a major component of the high levels of pest resistances found in S. pennellii—a component that was successfully introgressed into elite tomato breeding lines. Acylsugar‐mediated pest resistance is effective against a broad spectrum of tomato pests. Because high‐AS breeding lines are scarce, the deployment of hybrids between high‐AS line × low‐AS line would be a quick, viable alternative to obtain commercial pest‐resistant hybrids.
The objective of this study was to investigate safety and feasibility of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) transplantation in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), comparing anterograde intracoronary artery (ICA) delivery with retrograde intracoronary vein (ICV) approach. An open labeled, randomized controlled trial of 30 patients admitted with STEMI was used. Patients were enrolled if they 1) were successfully reperfused within 24 h from symptoms onset and 2) had infarct size larger than 10% of the left ventricle (LV). One hundred million BMMNC were injected in the infarct-related artery (intraarterial group) or vein (intravenous group), 1% of which was labeled with Tc 99m -hexamethylpropylenamineoxime. Cell distribution was evaluated 4 and 24 h after injection. Baseline MRI was performed in order to evaluate microbstruction pattern. Baseline radionuclide ventriculography was performed before cell transfer and after 3 and 6 months. All the treated patients were submitted to repeat coronary angiography after 3 months. Thirty patients (57 ± 11 years, 70% males) were randomly assigned to ICA (n = 14), ICV (n = 10), or control (n = 6) groups. No serious adverse events related to the procedure were observed. Early and late retention of radiolabeled cells was higher in the ICA than in the ICV group, independently of microcirculation obstruction. An increase of EF was observed in the ICA group (p = 0.02) compared to baseline. Injection procedures through anterograde and retrograde approaches seem to be feasible and safe. BMMNC retention by damaged heart tissue was apparently higher when the anterograde approach was used. Further studies are required to confirm these initial data.
We examined the resistance of improved tomato strains rich in 2-tridecanone (2-TD), zingiberene (ZGB) and acyl sugars (AA) to the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta. We also studied whether selection for strains with higher densities of glandular trichomes, and thus presumably strains with higher concentrations of 2-tridecanone, was effective in promoting greater resistance to the moth. The TOM-584 and TOM-679 strains were used as susceptible controls, which have normal concentrations of the three allelochemicals. The improved strain TOM-687, which has a high AA content, has a widely documented resistance and was used as a standard resistant strain. The wild strain PI134417, which is resistant by means of its high 2-TD content, was also used as a standard resistant strain. The experiment was installed in a greenhouse with a completely randomized design. The wild strain PI 134417 was confirmed as being highly resistant. TOM-622 (rich in 2-TD), ZGB-703 (rich in ZGB), and TOM-687 (rich in AA) showed significant reductions in the oviposition rate of the tomato moth, damage to the plants, injury to the leaflets, and the percentage of leaflets attacked in comparison with the control strains (TOM-584 and TOM-679). The levels of resistance to the moth for the TOM-622, ZGB-703, and TOM-687 strains were similar. In general, the genotypes with higher densities of glandular trichomes had greater resistance than the susceptible controls, with the strain BPX-367D-238-02 being particularly notable in its resistance.Index terms: Solanum lycopersicum, genotypes, breeding, indirect selection. RESUMOComparou-se a efetividade de linhagens melhoradas de tomateiro, ricas em 2-tridecanona (2-TD), zingibereno (ZGB) e acilaçúcares (AA), em relação aos níveis de resistência à traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta. Verificaram-se, também, se linhagens selecionadas para maiores densidades de tricomas glandulares, presumivelmente com maiores níveis de 2-tridecanona, são efetivas em promover maior resistência à traça. Como testemunhas suscetíveis foram utilizadas as linhagens TOM-584 e TOM-679, com nível normal dos três aleloquímicos. A linhagem melhorada TOM-687 (com alto teor de AA) foi utilizada como linhagem resistente padrão, por ter sua resistência amplamente documentada, juntamente com o também resistente acesso selvagem PI134417 (com alto teor de 2-TD). O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. O acesso selvagem PI 134417 confirmou-se como altamente resistente. TOM-622 (rica em 2-TD), ZGB-703 (rica em ZGB) e TOM-687 apresentaram diminuições significativas na ovoposição da traça-do-tomateiro, bem como no dano geral na planta, lesão nos folíolos e porcentagem de folíolos atacados, comparadas às testemunhas TOM-584 e TOM-679. Os níveis de resistência à traça em TOM-622, ZGB-703 e TOM-687 foram similares entre si. Em geral, os genótipos selecionados com maiores densidades de tricomas glandulares apresentaram níveis de resistência também superiores aos das testemunhas suscetíveis, destacando en...
Objective To report the point prevalence of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) in the first population-based study performed in the United States. Methods Cases of all potential pSS patients living in Olmsted County, Minnesota on January 1, 2015 were retrieved using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, and ascertained by manual medical record review. pSS cases were defined according to physician diagnosis. The use of diagnostic tests was assessed and the performance of classification criteria was evaluated. The number of prevalent cases in 2015 was also projected based on 1976–2005 incidence data from the same source population. Results A total of 106 patients with pSS were included in the study: 86% were female, with a mean (SD) age of 64.6 (15.2) years and disease duration of 10.5 (8.4) years. A majority were anti-SSA positive (75%) and/or anti-SSB positive (58%), but only 22% met American-European Consensus Group or American College of Rheumatology criteria because the other tests required for disease classification were rarely performed in clinical practice (ocular dryness objective assessment, salivary gland functional or morphologic tests, or salivary gland biopsy). According to the physician diagnosis, age and sex adjusted prevalence of pSS was 10.3/10,000 inhabitants, but according to classification criteria this prevalence was only 2.2/10,000. The analysis based on previous incidence data projected a similar 2015 prevalence rate of 11.0/10,000. Conclusion The prevalence of pSS in this geographically well-defined population was estimated between 2 and 10/10,000 inhabitants. Physicians rarely used tests included in the classification criteria to diagnose the disease in this community setting.
O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os graus de resistência à mosca-branca (Bemisia argentifolii) e ao ácaro-rajado (Tetranychus urticae) de híbridos de tomateiro resultantes do cruzamento entre linhagens com alto teor de zingibereno (ZGB) e linhagens com alto teor de acilaçúcar (AA), em contraste com as linhagens parentais e testemunhas comerciais. Foram avaliadas linhagens com altos teores de AA, linhagens com alto teor de ZGB, híbridos duplos heterozigotos ZGB+AA, híbridos heterozigotos para ZGB e híbridos heterozigotos para AA. Os acessos selvagens PI-127826 e LA-716 foram utilizados como testemunhas para alto teor de ZGB e AA, respectivamente, e os genótipos Débora Max e TOM-684 foram utilizados como testemunhas para baixo teor de ambos os aleloquímicos. Os genótipos foram submetidos ao teste de resistência à mosca-branca e ao teste de repelência ao ácaro. Os genótipos duplos heterozigotos apresentaram graus de resistência à mosca-branca superiores aos das testemunhas comerciais e inferiores aos das linhagens com alto ZGB ou com alto AA. Os genótipos duplos heterozigotos apresentaram maior repelência ao ácaro, em relação às testemunhas comerciais, e repelência semelhante à das linhagens com alto ZGB ou com alto AA. Não foi observado efeito sinérgico entre ZGB e AA nos genótipos duplos heterozigotos quanto à resistência à mosca-branca e repelência ao ácaro.
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