Significance: Oxidative DNA damage is repaired by multiple, overlapping DNA repair pathways. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that nucleotide excision repair (NER), besides base excision repair (BER), is also involved in neutralizing oxidative DNA damage. Recent Advances: NER includes two distinct sub-pathways: transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) and global genome repair (GG-NER). The CSA and CSB proteins initiate the onset of TC-NER. Recent findings show that not only CSB, but also CSA is involved in the repair of oxidative DNA lesions, in the nucleus as well as in mitochondria. The XPG protein is also of importance for the removal of oxidative DNA lesions, as it may enhance the initial step of BER. Substantial evidence exists that support a role for XPC in NER and BER. XPC deficiency not only results in decreased repair of oxidative lesions, but has also been linked to disturbed redox homeostasis. Critical Issues: The role of NER proteins in the regulation of the cellular response to oxidative (mitochondrial and nuclear) DNA damage may be the underlying mechanism of the pathology of accelerated aging in Cockayne syndrome patients, a driving force for internal cancer development in XP-A and XP-C patients, and a contributor to the mixed exhibited phenotypes of XP-G patients. Future Directions: Accumulating evidence indicates that DNA repair factors can be involved in multiple DNA repair pathways. However, the distinct detailed mechanism and consequences of these additional functions remain to be elucidated and can possibly shine a light on clinically related issues.
The accumulation of DNA damage is a slow but hazardous phenomenon that may lead to cell death, accelerated aging, and cancer.
Summary Aging and age-related pathology is a result of a still incompletely-understood intricate web of molecular and cellular processes. We present a C57BL/6J female mice in vivo aging study of five organs (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain), in which we compare genome-wide gene expression profiles during chronological aging with pathological changes throughout the entire murine lifespan (13, 26, 52, 78, 104 and 130 weeks). Relating gene expression changes to chronological aging revealed many differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and altered gene-sets (AGSs) were found in most organs, indicative of intra-organ generic aging processes. However, only ≤ 1% of these DEGs are found in all organs. For each organ, at least one of 18 tested pathological parameters showed a good age-predictive value, albeit with much inter- and intra-individual (organ) variation. Relating gene expression changes to pathology-related aging revealed correlated genes and gene-sets, which made it possible to characterize the difference between biological and chronological aging. In liver, kidney and brain, a limited number of overlapping pathology-related AGSs were found. Immune responses appeared to be common, yet the changes were specific in most organs. Furthermore, changes were observed in energy homeostasis, reactive oxygen species, cell cycle, cell motility and DNA damage. Comparison of chronological and pathology-related AGSs revealed substantial overlap and interesting differences. For example, the presence of immune processes in liver pathology-related AGSs which were not detected in chronological aging. The many cellular processes that are only found employing aging–related pathology could provide important new insights into the progress of aging.
The tumour suppressor p53 is one of the most important cancer genes. Previous findings have shown that p53 expression can influence DNA adduct formation of the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in human cells, indicating a role for p53 in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1-mediated biotransformation of BaP in vitro. We investigated the potential role of p53 in xenobiotic metabolism in vivo by treating Trp53(+/+), Trp53(+/–) and Trp53(−/−) mice with BaP. BaP-DNA adduct levels, as measured by 32P-postlabelling analysis, were significantly higher in liver and kidney of Trp53(−/−) mice than of Trp53(+/+) mice. Complementarily, significantly higher amounts of BaP metabolites were also formed ex vivo in hepatic microsomes from BaP-pretreated Trp53(−/−) mice. Bypass of the need for metabolic activation by treating mice with BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide resulted in similar adduct levels in liver and kidney in all mouse lines, confirming that the influence of p53 is on the biotransformation of the parent compound. Higher BaP-DNA adduct levels in the livers of Trp53(−/−) mice correlated with higher CYP1A protein levels and increased CYP1A enzyme activity in these animals. Our study demonstrates a role for p53 in the metabolism of BaP in vivo, confirming previous in vitro results on a novel role for p53 in CYP1A1-mediated BaP metabolism. However, our results also suggest that the mechanisms involved in the altered expression and activity of the CYP1A1 enzyme by p53 in vitro and in vivo are different.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00204-015-1531-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Complement is recognized as a key player in a wide range of normal as well as disease-related immune, developmental and homeostatic processes. Knowledge of complement components, structures, interactions, and cross-talk with other biological systems continues to grow and this leads to novel treatments for cancer, infectious, autoimmune- or age-related diseases as well as for preventing transplantation rejection. Antibodies are superbly suited to be developed into therapeutics with appropriate complement stimulatory or inhibitory activity. Here we review the design, development and future of antibody-based drugs that enhance or dampen the complement system.
The accumulation of DNA damage is a slow but hazardous phenomenon that may lead to cell death, accelerated aging features and cancer. One of the most versatile and important defense mechanisms against the accumulation of DNA damage is Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER), in which the Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein plays a prominent role. NER can be divided into Global Genome repair (GG-NER) and Transcription Coupled repair (TC-NER). XPC is a key factor in GG-NER where it functions in DNA damage recognition and after which the repair machinery is recruited to eliminate the DNA damage. Defective XPC functioning has been shown to result in a cancer prone phenotype, in human as well as in mice. Mutation accumulation in XPC deficient mice is accelerated and increased, resulting in an increased tumor incidence. More recently XPC has also been linked to functions outside of NER since XPC deficient mice show a divergent tumor spectrum compared to other NER deficient mouse models. Multiple in vivo and in vitro experiments indicate that XPC appears to be involved in the initiation of several DNA damage-induced cellular responses. XPC seems to function in the removal of oxidative DNA damage, redox homeostasis and cell cycle control. We hypothesize that this combination of increased oxidative DNA damage sensitivity, disturbed redox homeostasis together with inefficient cell cycle control mechanisms are causes of the observed increased cancer susceptibility in oxygen exposed tissues. Such a phenotype is absent in other NER-deficient mice, including Xpa.
XPC is one of the key DNA damage recognition proteins in the global genome repair route of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Previously, we demonstrated that NER-deficient mouse models Xpa−/− and Xpc−/− exhibit a divergent spontaneous tumor spectrum and proposed that XPC might be functionally involved in the defense against oxidative DNA damage. Others have mechanistically dissected several functionalities of XPC to oxidative DNA damage sensitivity using in vitro studies. XPC has been linked to regulation of base excision repair (BER) activity, redox homeostasis and recruitment of ATM and ATR to damage sites, thereby possibly regulating cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis. XPC has additionally been implicated in recognition of bulky (e.g. cyclopurines) and non-bulky DNA damage (8-oxodG). However, the ultimate contribution of the XPC functionality in vivo in the oxidative DNA damage response and subsequent mutagenesis process remains unclear. Our study indicates that Xpc−/− mice, in contrary to Xpa−/− and wild type mice, have an increased mutational load upon induction of oxidative stress and that mutations arise in a slowly accumulative fashion. The effect of non-functional XPC in vivo upon oxidative stress exposure appears to have implications in mutagenesis, which can contribute to the carcinogenesis process. The levels and rate of mutagenesis upon oxidative stress correlate with previous findings that lung tumors in Xpc−/− mice overall arise late in the lifespan and that the incidence of internal tumors in XP-C patients is relatively low in comparison to skin cancer incidence.
Background Fidaxomicin, a narrow-spectrum antibiotic approved for Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) in adults, is associated with lower rates of recurrence than vancomycin; however, pediatric data are limited. This multicenter, investigator-blind, phase 3, parallel-group trial assessed the safety and efficacy of fidaxomicin in children. Methods Patients aged <18 years with confirmed CDI were randomized 2:1 to 10 days of treatment with fidaxomicin (suspension or tablets, twice daily) or vancomycin (suspension or tablets, 4 times daily). Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events. The primary efficacy end point was confirmed clinical response (CCR), 2 days after the end of treatment (EOT). Secondary end points included global cure (GC; CCR without CDI recurrence) 30 days after EOT (end of study; EOS). Plasma and stool concentrations of fidaxomicin and its active metabolite OP-1118 were measured. Results Of 148 patients randomized, 142 were treated (30 <2 years old). The proportion of participants with treatment-emergent adverse events was similar with fidaxomicin (73.5%) and vancomycin (75.0%). Of 3 deaths in the fidaxomicin arm during the study, none were CDI or treatment related. The rate of CCR at 2 days after EOT was 77.6% (76 of 98 patients) with fidaxomicin and 70.5% (31 of 44) with vancomycin, whereas the rate of GC at EOS was significantly higher in participants receiving fidaxomicin (68.4% vs 50.0%; adjusted treatment difference, 18.8%; 95% confidence interval, 1.5%–35.3%). Systemic absorption of fidaxomicin and OP-1118 was minimal, and stool concentrations were high. Conclusions Compared with vancomycin, fidaxomicin was well tolerated and demonstrated significantly higher rates of GC in children and adolescents with CDI. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02218372
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