Therapeutic effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) are limited by cancer hypoxia because the PDT process is dependent on O concentration. Herein, we design biocompatible manganese ferrite nanoparticle-anchored mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MFMSNs) to overcome hypoxia, consequently enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of PDT. By exploiting the continuous O-evolving property of MnFeO nanoparticles through the Fenton reaction, MFMSNs relieve hypoxic condition using a small amount of nanoparticles and improve therapeutic outcomes of PDT for tumors in vivo. In addition, MFMSNs exhibit T contrast effect in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allowing in vivo tracking of MFMSNs. These findings demonstrate great potential of MFMSNs for theranostic agents in cancer therapy.
Poor O 2 supply to the infiltrated immune cells in the joint synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) up-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) expression and induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, both of which exacerbate synovial inflammation. Synovial inflammation in RA can be resolved by eliminating pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and inducing anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Because hypoxia and ROS in the RA synovium play a crucial role in the induction of M1 macrophages and reduction of M2 macrophages, herein, we develop manganese ferrite and ceria nanoparticle-anchored mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MFC-MSNs) that can synergistically scavenge ROS and produce O 2 for reducing M1 macrophage levels and inducing M2 macrophages for RA treatment. MFC-MSNs exhibit a synergistic effect on O 2 generation and ROS scavenging that is attributed to the complementary reaction of ceria nanoparticles (NPs) that can scavenge intermediate hydroxyl radicals generated by manganese ferrite NPs in the process of O 2 generation during the Fenton reaction, leading to the efficient polarization of M1 to M2 macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. Intra-articular administration of MFC-MSNs to rat RA models alleviated hypoxia, inflammation, and pathological features in the joint. Furthermore, MSNs were used as a drug-delivery vehicle, releasing the anti-rheumatic drug methotrexate in a sustained manner to augment the therapeutic effect of MFC-MSNs. This study highlights the therapeutic potential of MFC-MSNs that simultaneously generate O 2 and scavenge ROS, subsequently driving inflammatory macrophages to the antiinflammatory subtype for RA treatment.
Implantable endovascular devices such as bare metal, drug eluting, and bioresorbable stents have transformed interventional care by providing continuous structural and mechanical support to many peripheral, neural, and coronary arteries affected by blockage. Although effective in achieving immediate restoration of blood flow, the long-term re-endothelialization and inflammation induced by mechanical stents are difficult to diagnose or treat. Here we present nanomaterial designs and integration strategies for the bioresorbable electronic stent with drug-infused functionalized nanoparticles to enable flow sensing, temperature monitoring, data storage, wireless power/data transmission, inflammation suppression, localized drug delivery, and hyperthermia therapy. In vivo and ex vivo animal experiments as well as in vitro cell studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized potential for bioresorbable electronic implants coupled with bioinert therapeutic nanoparticles in the endovascular system.
In the search for new therapeutic agents for currently incurable diseases, attention has turned to traditionally "undruggable" targets, and collections of drug-like small molecules with high diversity and quality have become a prerequisite for new breakthroughs. To generate such collections, the diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) strategy was developed, which aims to populate new chemical space with drug-like compounds containing a high degree of molecular diversity. The resulting DOS-derived libraries have been of great value for the discovery of various bioactive small molecules and therapeutic agents, and thus DOS has emerged as an essential tool in chemical biology and drug discovery. However, the key challenge has become how to design and synthesize drug-like small-molecule libraries with improved biological relevancy as well as maximum molecular diversity. This Perspective presents the development of privileged substructure-based DOS (pDOS), an efficient strategy for the construction of polyheterocyclic compound libraries with high biological relevancy. We envisioned the specific interaction of drug-like small molecules with certain biopolymers via the incorporation of privileged substructures into polyheterocyclic core skeletons. The importance of privileged substructures such as benzopyran, pyrimidine, and oxopiperazine in rigid skeletons was clearly demonstrated through the discovery of bioactive small molecules and the subsequent identification of appropriate target biomolecule using a method called "fluorescence difference in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis". Focusing on examples of pDOS-derived bioactive compounds with exceptional specificity, we discuss the capability of privileged structures to serve as chemical "navigators" toward biologically relevant chemical spaces. We also provide an outlook on chemical biology research and drug discovery using biologically relevant compound libraries constructed by pDOS, biology-oriented synthesis, or natural product-inspired DOS.
Inorganic nanoparticle-based biomedical
imaging probes have been
studied extensively as a potential alternative to conventional molecular
imaging probes. Not only can they provide better imaging performance
but they can also offer greater versatility of multimodal, stimuli-responsive,
and targeted imaging. However, inorganic nanoparticle-based probes
are still far from practical use in clinics due to safety concerns
and less-optimized efficiency. In this context, it would be valuable
to look over the underlying issues. This outlook highlights the recent
advances in the development of inorganic nanoparticle-based probes
for MRI, CT, and anti-Stokes shift-based optical imaging. Various
issues and possibilities regarding the construction of imaging probes
are discussed, and future research directions are suggested.
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