The objective of the Working Group in formulating these statements is to guide healthcare professionals in practicing appropriate clinical nutrition in the ICU, with a focus on improving quality of care, which will translate into improved patient outcomes.
IntroductionIn the past 20 years, our understanding of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) management has improved, but the worldwide incidence and current outcomes are unclear. The reported incidence is highly variable, and no studies specifically characterise ARDS epidemiology in Asia. This observation study aims to determine the incidence, mortality and management practices of ARDS in a high income South East Asian country.MethodsWe conducted a prospective, population based observational study in 6 public hospitals. During a one month period, we identified all ARDS patients admitted to public hospital intensive care units (ICU) in Singapore, according to the Berlin definition. Demographic information, clinical management data and ICU outcome data was collected.ResultsA total of 904 adult patients were admitted to ICU during the study period and 15 patients met ARDS criteria. The unadjusted incidence of ARDS was 4.5 cases per 100,000 population, accounting for 1.25% of all ICU patients. Most patients were male (75%), Chinese (62%), had pneumonia (73%), and were admitted to a Medical ICU (56%). Management strategies varied across all ICUs. In-hospital mortality was 40% and median length of ICU stay was 7 days.ConclusionThe incidence of ARDS in a developed S.E Asia country is comparable to reported rates in European studies.
Introduction: Despite adhering to criteria for extubation, up to 20% of intensive care patients require
re-intubation, even with use of post-extubation high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). This study aims to
identify independent predictors and outcomes of extubation failure in patients who failed postextubation
Methods: We conducted a multicentre observational study involving 9 adult intensive care units
(ICUs) across 5 public hospitals in Singapore. We included patients extubated to HFNC following
spontaneous breathing trials. We compared patients who were successfully weaned off HFNC with
those who failed HFNC (defined as re-intubation ≤7 days following extubation). Generalised additive
logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for failed HFNC.
Results: Among 244 patients (mean age: 63.92±15.51 years, 65.2% male, median APACHE II score
23.55±7.35), 41 (16.8%) failed HFNC; hypoxia, hypercapnia and excessive secretions were primary
reasons. Stroke was an independent predictor of HFNC failure (odds ratio 2.48, 95% confidence
interval 1.83–3.37). Failed HFNC, as compared to successful HFNC, was associated with increased
median ICU length of stay (14 versus 7 days, P<0.001), ICU mortality (14.6% versus 2.0%, P<0.001)
and hospital mortality (29.3% versus 12.3%, P=0.006).
Conclusion: Post-extubation HFNC failure, especially in patients with stroke as a comorbidity, remains
a clinical challenge and predicts poorer clinical outcomes. Our observational study highlights the need
for future prospective trials to better identify patients at high risk of post-extubation HFNC failure.
Keywords: Adult, airway extubation, high-flow nasal cannula, mechanical ventilation, respiratory failure
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