BackgroundIn Madagascar, despite an influenza surveillance established since 1978, little is known about the etiology and prevalence of viruses other than influenza causing influenza-like illnesses (ILIs).Methodology/Principal FindingsFrom July 2008 to June 2009, we collected respiratory specimens from patients who presented ILIs symptoms in public and private clinics in Antananarivo (the capital city of Madagascar). ILIs were defined as body temperature ≥38°C and cough and at least two of the following symptoms: sore throat, rhinorrhea, headache and muscular pain, for a maximum duration of 3 days. We screened these specimens using five multiplex real time Reverse Transcription and/or Polymerase Chain Reaction assays for detection of 14 respiratory viruses. We detected respiratory viruses in 235/313 (75.1%) samples. Overall influenza virus A (27.3%) was the most common virus followed by rhinovirus (24.8%), RSV (21.2%), adenovirus (6.1%), coronavirus OC43 (6.1%), influenza virus B (3.9%), parainfluenza virus-3 (2.9%), and parainfluenza virus-1 (2.3%). Co-infections occurred in 29.4% (69/235) of infected patients and rhinovirus was the most detected virus (27.5%). Children under 5 years were more likely to have one or more detectable virus associated with their ILI. In this age group, compared to those ≥5 years, the risk of detecting more than one virus was higher (OR = 1.9), as was the risk of detecting of RSV (OR = 10.1) and adenovirus (OR = 4.7). While rhinovirus and adenovirus infections occurred year round, RSV, influenza virus A and coronavirus OC43 had defined period of circulation.ConclusionsIn our study, we found that respiratory viruses play an important role in ILIs in the Malagasy community, particularly in children under 5 years old. These data provide a better understanding of the viral etiology of outpatients with ILI and describe for the first time importance of these viruses in different age group and their period of circulation.
The virus reemerged during an outbreak in Madagascar in 2008.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the Philadelphia chromosome resulting from the translocation t(9-22) producing the chimeric 190 and 210 kDa BCR ± ABL fusion proteins. Evolution of the CML to the more agressive acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is accompanied by increased cellular proliferation and genomic instability at the cytogenetic level. We hypothezised that genomic instability at the nucleotide level and spontaneous error in DNA replication may also contribute to the evolution of CML to AML. Murine Ba/F3 cell line was transfected with the p190 and p210-encoding BCR ± ABL oncogenes, and spontaneous mutation frequency at the Na-K-ATPase and the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) loci were measured. A signi®cant 3 ± 5-fold increase in mutation frequency for the transfected cells relative to the untransfected control cells was found. Furthermore, we observed that BCR ± ABL transfection induced an overexpression of DNA polymerase b, the most inaccurate of the mammalian DNA polymerases, as well as an increase in its activity, suggesting that inaccuracy of DNA replication may account for the observed mutator phenotype. These data suggest that the Philadelphia abnormality confers a mutator phenotype and may have implications for the potential role of DNA polymerase b in this process.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Clinical staging classification is generally insufficient to provide a reliable prognosis, particularly for early stages. In addition, prognostic factors are therefore needed to better forecast life expectancy and optimize adjuvant therapeutic strategy. Recent evidence indicates that alterations of the DNA replication program contribute to neoplasia from its early stages and that cancer cells are frequently exposed to endogenous replication stress. We therefore hypothesized that genes involved in the replication stress response may represent an under-explored source of biomarkers. Expressions of 77 DNA replication-associated genes implicated in different aspects of chromosomal DNA replication, including licensing, firing of origins, elongation, replication fork maintenance and recovery, lesion bypass and post-replicative repair were determined in primary tumors and adjacent normal tissues from 93 patients suffering from early- or mid-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We then investigated a statistically significant interaction between gene expressions and survival of early-stage NSCLC patients.The expression of five genes, that is, POLQ, PLK1, RAD51, CLASPIN and CDC6 was associated with overall, disease-free and relapse-free survival. The expression levels are independent of treatment and stage classification. Except RAD51, their prognostic role on survival persists after adjustment on age, sex, treatment, stage classification and conventional proliferation markers, with a hazard ratio of 36.3 for POLQ (95%CI 2.6–517.4, P=0.008), 23.5 for PLK1 (95%CI 1.9–288.4, P=0.01), 20.7 for CLASPIN (95%CI 1.5–275.9, P=0.02) and 18.5 for CDC6 (95%CI 1.3–267.4, P=0.03). We also show that a five-gene signature including POLQ, PLK1, RAD51, CLASPIN and CDC6 separates patients into low- and high-risk groups, with a hazard ratio of 14.3 (95% CI 5.1–40.3, P<0.001). This ‘replication stress' metamarker may be a reliable predictor of survival for NSCLC, and may also help understand the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor progression.
BackgroundIn Madagascar, very little is known about the etiology and prevalence of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a rural tropical area. Recent data are needed to determine the viral and atypical bacterial etiologies in children with defined clinical manifestations of ARIs.MethodsDuring one year, we conducted a prospective study on ARIs in children between 2 to 59 months in the community hospital of Ampasimanjeva, located in the south-east of Madagascar. Respiratory samples were analyzed by multiplex real-time RT-PCR, including 18 viruses and 2 atypical bacteria. The various episodes of ARI were grouped into four clinical manifestations with well-documented diagnosis: “Community Acquired Pneumonia”(CAP, group I), “Other acute lower respiratory infections (Other ALRIs, group II)”, “Upper respiratory tract infections with cough (URTIs with cough, group III)”and “Upper respiratory tract infections without cough (URTIs without cough, group IV)”.Results295 children were included in the study between February 2010 and February 2011. Viruses and/or atypical bacteria respiratory pathogens were detected in 74.6% of samples, the rate of co-infection was 27.3%. Human rhinovirus (HRV; 20.5%), metapneumovirus (HMPV A/B, 13.8%), coronaviruses (HCoV, 12.5%), parainfluenza virus (HPIV, 11.8%) and respiratory syncytial virus A and B (RSV A/B, 11.8%) were the most detected. HRV was predominantly single detected (23.8%) in all the clinical groups while HMPV A/B (23.9%) was mainly related to CAP (group I), HPIV (17.3%) to the “Other ALRIs” (group II), RSV A/B (19.5%) predominated in the group “URTIs with cough” (group III) and Adenovirus (HAdV, 17.8%) was mainly detected in the “without cough” (group IV).InterpretationThis study describes for the first time the etiology of respiratory infections in febrile children under 5 years in a malaria rural area of Madagascar and highlights the role of respiratory viruses in a well clinically defined population of ARIs.
Mixed viral and bacterial infections are widely described in community-acquired pneumonia; however, the clinical implications of co-infection on the associated immunopathology remain poorly studied. In this study, microRNA, mRNA and cytokine/chemokine secretion profiling were investigated for human monocyte-derived macrophages infected in-vitro with Influenza virus A/H1N1 and/or Streptococcus pneumoniae. We observed that the in-vitro co-infection synergistically increased interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (CXCL10, IP-10) expression compared to the singly-infected cells conditions. We demonstrated that endogenous miRNA-200a-3p, whose expression was synergistically induced following co-infection, indirectly regulates CXCL10 expression by targeting suppressor of cytokine signaling-6 (SOCS-6), a well-known regulator of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Additionally, in a subsequent clinical pilot study, immunomodulators levels were evaluated in samples from 74 children (≤5 years-old) hospitalized with viral and/or bacterial community-acquired pneumonia. Clinically, among the 74 cases of pneumonia, patients with identified mixed-detection had significantly higher (3.6-fold) serum IP-10 levels than those with a single detection (P = 0.03), and were significantly associated with severe pneumonia (P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that viral and bacterial co-infection modulates the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and leads to exacerbated IP-10 expression, which could play a major role in the pathogenesis of pneumonia.
Cadmium poses a significant threat to human health due to its toxicity. In mammals and in bakers' yeast, cadmium is detoxified by ATP-binding cassette transporters after conjugation to glutathione. In fission yeast, phytochelatins constitute the cosubstrate with cadmium for the transporter SpHMT1. In plants, a detoxification mechanism similar to the one in fission yeast is supposed, but the molecular nature of the transporter is still lacking. To investigate further the relationship between SpHMT1 and its co-substrate, we overexpressed the transporter in a Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain deleted for the phytochelatin synthase gene and heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Escherichia coli. In all organisms, overexpression of SpHMT1 conferred a markedly enhanced tolerance to cadmium but not to Sb(III), AgNO 3 , As(III), As(V), CuSO 4 , or HgCl 2 . Abolishment of the catalytic activity by expression of SpHMT1 K623M mutant suppressed the cadmium tolerance phenotype independently of the presence of phytochelatins. Depletion of the glutathione pool inhibited the SpHMT1 activity but not that of AtHMA4, a P-type ATPase, indicating that GSH is necessary for the SpHMT1-mediated cadmium resistance. In E. coli, SpHMT1 was targeted to the periplasmic membrane and led to an increased amount of cadmium in the periplasm. These results demonstrate that SpHMT1 confers cadmium tolerance in the absence of phytochelatins but depending on the presence of GSH and ATP. Our results challenge the dogma of the two separate cadmium detoxification pathways and demonstrate that a common highly conserved mechanism has been selected during the evolution from bacteria to humans.Cadmium is a trace element, the presence of which in the environment is essentially due to human activities. It is a highly toxic non-biological heavy metal able to enter living cells via transporters usually used for the uptake of essential cations such as calcium, iron, zinc, and so forth (1). The reactivity of cadmium with thiol groups and its ability to displace essential biological metals result in oxidative stress and eventually cell death (2). To cope with cadmium toxicity, living organisms have developed different strategies.In animals, as in the bakers' yeast cytoplasmic cadmium is complexed with the thiol tripeptide glutathione, a general redox regulator (3, 4). Bis(glutathionato)-cadmium complexes (Cd-GS 2 ) 4 are then driven from the cytoplasm to lesser sensitive cellular compartments by dedicated transporters. The prototypical transporter of Cd-GS 2 is the GS-X pump, ScYCF1, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (5) and, even if still controversial, to a lesser extent HsMRP1 in humans (6). HsMRP1 probably acts as an efflux pump at the plasma membrane, delivering cadmium in the extracellular medium, whereas ScYCF1 allows sequestration of cadmium into the vacuole (5). A study of a deficient Scycf1 strain has shown that it was extremely cadmium-sensitive, pointing to a major role of ScYCF1 in cadmium tolerance and detoxification (5). Additionally, ScYCF1 wa...
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