Background: Understanding the clinical course and short-term outcomes of suspected myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination has important public health implications in the decision to vaccinate youth.
Methods: We retrospectively collected data on patients <21 years-old presenting before 7/4/2021 with suspected myocarditis within 30 days of COVID-19 vaccination. Lake Louise criteria were used for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) findings. Myocarditis cases were classified as confirmed or probable based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions.
Results: We report on 139 adolescents and young adults with 140 episodes of suspected myocarditis (49 confirmed, 91 probable) at 26 centers. Most patients were male (N=126, 90.6%) and White (N=92, 66.2%); 29 (20.9%) were Hispanic; and median age was 15.8 years (range 12.1-20.3, IQR 14.5-17.0). Suspected myocarditis occurred in 136 patients (97.8%) following mRNA vaccine, with 131 (94.2%) following the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; 128 (91.4%) occurred after the 2nd dose. Symptoms started a median of 2 days (range 0-22, IQR 1-3) after vaccination. The most common symptom was chest pain (99.3%). Patients were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (81.3%), intravenous immunoglobulin (21.6%), glucocorticoids (21.6%), colchicine (7.9%) or no anti-inflammatory therapies (8.6%). Twenty-six patients (18.7%) were in the ICU, two were treated with inotropic/vasoactive support, and none required ECMO or died. Median hospital stay was 2 days (range 0-10, IQR 2-3). All patients had elevated troponin I (N=111, 8.12 ng/mL, IQR 3.50-15.90) or T (N=28, 0.61 ng/mL, IQR 0.25-1.30); 69.8% had abnormal electrocardiograms and/or arrythmias (7 with non-sustained ventricular tachycardia); and 18.7% had left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <55% on echocardiogram. Of 97 patients who underwent cMRI at median 5 days (range 0-88, IQR 3-17) from symptom onset, 75 (77.3%) had abnormal findings: 74 (76.3%) had late gadolinium enhancement, 54 (55.7%) had myocardial edema, and 49 (50.5%) met Lake Louise criteria. Among 26 patients with LVEF <55% on echocardiogram, all with follow-up had normalized function (N=25).
Conclusions:Most cases of suspected COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis occurring in persons <21 years have a mild clinical course with rapid resolution of symptoms. Abnormal findings on cMRI were frequent. Future studies should evaluate risk factors, mechanisms, and long-term outcomes.
Magische Methoden: Die Kombination von schneller Drehung im magischen Winkel, Isotopenverdünnung und hoher Magnetfeldstärke ergibt gut aufgelöste Festkörper‐1H‐NMR‐Spektren, die effizient eingesetzt wurden, um Proteinstrukturen zu lösen. Mit den neuen Techniken genügen nun drei Tage für die Datensammlung, die Zuordnung der Signale zu den Protonen und die Erstellung einer hochaufgelösten Struktur von mikrokristallinem GB1.
Secret sharing over the fast-fading MIMO wiretap channel is considered. A source and a destination try to share secret information over a fast-fading MIMO channel in the presence of an eavesdropper who also makes channel observations that are different from but correlated to those made by the destination. An interactive, authenticated public channel with unlimited capacity is available to the source and destination for the secret sharing process. This situation is a special case of the "channel model with wiretapper" considered by Ahlswede and Csiszár. An extension of their result to continuous channel alphabets is employed to evaluate the key capacity of the fast-fading MIMO wiretap channel. The effects of spatial dimensionality provided by the use of multiple antennas at the source, destination, and eavesdropper are then investigated.
This paper investigates the synchronization of a network of Euler-Lagrange systems with leader tracking. The Euler-Lagrange systems are heterogeneous and uncertain and contain bounded, exogenous disturbances. The network leader has a timevarying trajectory which is known to only a subset of the follower agents. A robust integral sign of the error-based decentralized control law is developed to yield semiglobal asymptotic agent synchronization and leader tracking.
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