The endothelial cell (EC) lining of the pulmonary vasculature forms a semipermeable barrier between the blood and the interstitium of the lung. Disruption of this barrier occurs during inflammatory disease states such as acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome and results in the movement of fluid and macromolecules into the interstitium and pulmonary air spaces. These processes significantly contribute to the high morbidity and mortality of patients afflicted with acute lung injury. The critical importance of pulmonary vascular barrier function is shown by the balance between competing EC contractile forces, which generate centripetal tension, and adhesive cell-cell and cell-matrix tethering forces, which regulate cell shape. Both competing forces in this model are intimately linked through the endothelial cytoskeleton, a complex network of actin microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments, which combine to regulate shape change and transduce signals within and between EC. A key EC contractile event in several models of agonist-induced barrier dysfunction is the phosphorylation of regulatory myosin light chains catalyzed by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase and/or through the activity of the Rho/Rho kinase pathway. Intercellular contacts along the endothelial monolayer consist primarily of two types of complexes (adherens junctions and tight junctions), which link to the actin cytoskeleton to provide both mechanical stability and transduction of extracellular signals into the cell. Focal adhesions provide additional adhesive forces in barrier regulation by forming a critical bridge for bidirectional signal transduction between the actin cytoskeleton and the cell-matrix interface. Increasingly, the effects of mechanical forces such as shear stress and ventilator-induced stretch on EC barrier function are being recognized. The critical role of the endothelial cytoskeleton in integrating these multiple aspects of pulmonary vascular permeability provides a fertile area for the development of clinically important barrier-modulating therapies.
Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) is an object database that integrates a wealth of information relevant to the function of human proteins in health and disease. Data pertaining to thousands of protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications, enzyme/substrate relationships, disease associations, tissue expression, and subcellular localization were extracted from the literature for a nonredundant set of 2750 human proteins. Almost all the information was obtained manually by biologists who read and interpreted >300,000 published articles during the annotation process. This database, which has an intuitive query interface allowing easy access to all the features of proteins, was built by using open source technologies and will be freely available at http://www.hprd.org to the academic community. This unified bioinformatics platform will be useful in cataloging and mining the large number of proteomic interactions and alterations that will be discovered in the postgenomic era.
Microarray technology is a powerful tool for measuring RNA expression for thousands of genes at once. Various studies have been published comparing competing platforms with mixed results: some find agreement, others do not. As the number of researchers starting to use microarrays and the number of cross-platform meta-analysis studies rapidly increases, appropriate platform assessments become more important. Here we present results from a comparison study that offers important improvements over those previously described in the literature. In particular, we noticed that none of the previously published papers consider differences between labs. For this study, a consortium of ten laboratories from the Washington, DC-Baltimore, USA, area was formed to compare data obtained from three widely used platforms using identical RNA samples. We used appropriate statistical analysis to demonstrate that there are relatively large differences in data obtained in labs using the same platform, but that the results from the best-performing labs agree rather well.
Summary Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease that probably involves several genetic loci. Several rare genetic variants and one common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of MUC5B have been associated with the disease. Our aim was to identify additional common variants associated with susceptibility and ultimately mortality in IPF. Methods First, we did a three-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS): stage one was a discovery GWAS; and stages two and three were independent case-control studies. DNA samples from European-American patients with IPF meeting standard criteria were obtained from several US centres for each stage. Data for European-American control individuals for stage one were gathered from the database of genotypes and phenotypes; additional control individuals were recruited at the University of Pittsburgh to increase the number. For controls in stages two and three, we gathered data for additional sex-matched European-American control individuals who had been recruited in another study. DNA samples from patients and from control individuals were genotyped to identify SNPs associated with IPF. SNPs identified in stage one were carried forward to stage two, and those that achieved genome-wide significance (p<5 × 10−8) in a meta-analysis were carried forward to stage three. Three case series with follow-up data were selected from stages one and two of the GWAS using samples with follow-up data. Mortality analyses were done in these case series to assess the SNPs associated with IPF that had achieved genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis of stages one and two. Finally, we obtained gene-expression profiling data for lungs of patients with IPF from the Lung Genomics Research Consortium and analysed correlation with SNP genotypes. Findings In stage one of the GWAS (542 patients with IPF, 542 control individuals matched one-by-one to cases by genetic ancestry estimates), we identified 20 loci. Six SNPs reached genome-wide significance in stage two (544 patients, 687 control individuals): three TOLLIP SNPs (rs111521887, rs5743894, rs5743890) and one MUC5B SNP (rs35705950) at 11p15.5; one MDGA2 SNP (rs7144383) at 14q21.3; and one SPPL2C SNP (rs17690703) at 17q21.31. Stage three (324 patients, 702 control individuals) confirmed the associations for all these SNPs, except for rs7144383. Linkage disequilibrium between the MUC5B SNP (rs35705950) and TOLLIP SNPs (rs111521887 [r2=0.07], rs5743894 [r2=0.16], and rs5743890 [r2=0.01]) was low. 683 patients from the GWAS were included in the mortality analysis. Individuals who developed IPF despite having the protective TOLLIP minor allele of rs5743890 carried an increased mortality risk (meta-analysis with fixed-effect model: hazard ratio 1.72 [95% CI 1.24–2.38]; p=0.0012). TOLLIP expression was decreased by 20% in individuals carrying the minor allele of rs5743890 (p=0.097), 40% in those with the minor allele of rs111521887 (p=3.0 × 10−4), and 50% in those with the minor allele of rs5743894 (p=2.93 × 10−5) compa...
Endothelial cell (EC) contraction results in intercellular gap formation and loss of the selective vascular barrier to circulating macromolecules. We tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation of regulatory myosin light chains (MLC) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is critical to EC barrier dysfunction elicited by thrombin. Thrombin stimulated a rapid (< 15 sec) increase in [Ca2+]i which preceded maximal MLC phosphorylation (60 sec) with a 6 to 8-fold increase above constitutive levels of phosphorylated MLC. Dramatic cellular shape changes indicative of contraction and gap formation were observed at 5 min with maximal increases in albumin permeability occurring by 10 min. Neither the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, nor phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), a direct activator of protein kinase C (PKC), alone or in combination, produced MLC phosphorylation. The combination was synergistic, however, in stimulating EC contraction/gap formation and barrier dysfunction (3 to 4-fold increase). Down-regulation or inhibition of PKC activity attenuated thrombin-induced MLC phosphorylation (approximately 40% inhibition) and both thrombin- and PMA-induced albumin clearance (approximately 50% inhibition). Agents which augmented [cAMP]i partially blocked thrombin-induced MLC phosphorylation (approximately 50%) and completely inhibited both thrombin- and PMA-induced EC permeability (100% inhibition). Furthermore, cAMP produced significant reduction in the basal levels of constitutive MLC phosphorylation. Finally, MLCK inhibition (with either ML-7 or KT 5926) or Ca2+/calmodulin antagonism (with either trifluoperazine or W-7) attenuated thrombin-induced MLC phosphorylation and barrier dysfunction. These results suggest a model wherein EC contractile events, gap formation and barrier dysfunction occur via MLCK-dependent and independent mechanisms and are significantly modulated by both PKC and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A activities.
Our prior in vitro studies indicate that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a phospholipid angiogenic factor, produces endothelial cell barrier enhancement through ligation of endothelial differentiation gene family receptors. We hypothesized that S1P may reduce the vascular leak associated with acute lung injury and found that S1P infusion produced a rapid and significant reduction in lung weight gain (more than 50%) in the isolated perfused murine lung. The effect of S1P was next assessed in a murine model of LPS-mediated microvascular permeability and inflammation with marked increases in parameters of lung injury at both 6 and 24 hours after intratracheal LPS. Each parameter assessed was significantly reduced by intravenous S1P (1 microM final) and in selected experiments by the S1P analogue FTY720 (0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) delivered 1 hour after LPS. S1P produced an approximately 40-50% reduction in LPS-mediated extravasation of Evans blue dye albumin, bronchoalveolar lavage protein content, and lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity (reflecting phagocyte infiltration). Consistent with systemic barrier enhancement, S1P significantly decreased Evans blue dye albumin extravasation and myeloperoxidase content in renal tissues of LPS-treated mice. These studies indicate that S1P significantly decreases pulmonary/renal vascular leakage and inflammation in a murine model of LPS-mediated acute lung injury and may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular barrier dysfunction.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers