Aims/hypothesis. Morphometric and passive biomechanical properties were studied in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in 10 non-diabetic and 40 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods. The diabetic rats were divided into groups living 4 days, 1, 2, and 4 weeks after diabetes was induced (n=10 for each groups). The mechanical test was done as a ramp distension experiment. The intestinal diameter and length were obtained from digitised images of the intestinal segments at pre-selected pressures and at no-load and zero-stress states. Circumferential and longitudinal stresses (force per area) and strains (deformation) were computed from the length, diameter and pressure data and from the zero-stress state geometry. Results. The blood glucose concentration increased four-to fivefold in the diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes generated pronounced increase in the weight per centimetre length, wall thickness and wall cross-sectional area in all intestinal segments during diabetes (p<0.05). Histological analysis showed that the thickness of the intestinal layers was increased in all segments during diabetes (p<0.05). In the duodenum the opening angle did not change in the first 2 weeks and decreased after 4 weeks (p<0.05). In the jejunum and ileum the opening angle increased after 1 week in the diabetic group. The residual strain showed the same pattern as the opening angle. Furthermore, it was found that the circumferential and longitudinal stiffness of the intestinal wall increased with the duration of diabetes (p<0.05 and p<0.01). Conclusion/interpretation. Morphological and biomechanical remodelling of the small intestine occurred during the development of diabetes. [Diabetologia (2003[Diabetologia ( ) 46:1688[Diabetologia ( -1697
The epicardial coronary arteries experience significant torsion in the axial direction due to changes in the shape of the heart during the cardiac cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the torsional mechanical properties of the coronary arteries under various circumferential and longitudinal loadings. The coronary artery was treated as a two-layer composite vessel consisting of intima-medial and adventitial layers, and the shear modulus of each layer was determined. Eight porcine hearts were obtained at a local abattoir, and their right coronary and left anterior descending arteries were isolated and tested in vitro with a triaxial torsion machine (inflation, longitudinal stretch, and circumferential twist). After the intact vessel was tested, the adventitia was dissected away, leaving an intact media that was then tested under identical triaxial loading conditions. We proposed a biomechanical analysis to compute the shear modulus of the adventitia from the measured shear moduli of the intact vessel and the media. To validate our predictions, we used four additional hearts in which the shear modulus of the adventitia was measured after dissection of media. Our results show that the shear modulus does not depend on the shear stress or strain but varies linearly with circumferential and longitudinal stresses and in a nonlinear way with the corresponding strains. Furthermore, we found that the shear modulus of the adventitia is larger than that of the intact vessel, which is larger than the vessel media. These results may have important implications for baroreceptor sensitivity, circulation of the vasa vasorum, and coronary dissection.
Aims/hypothesisObesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with BMI and risk of obesity. However, information on their associations with type 2 diabetes is limited. Such information could help increase our understanding of the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of 12 obesity susceptibility loci, individually and in combination, with risk of type 2 diabetes in the population-based European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort.MethodsWe genotyped 12 SNPs, identified by GWA studies of BMI, in 20,428 individuals (aged 39–79 years at baseline) with an average follow-up of 12.9 years, during which 729 individuals developed type 2 diabetes. A genetic predisposition score was calculated by adding the BMI-increasing alleles across the 12 SNPs. Associations with incidence of type 2 diabetes were examined by logistic regression models.ResultsOf the 12 SNPs, eight showed a trend with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, consistent with their BMI-increasing effects. Each additional BMI-increasing allele in the genetic predisposition score was associated with a 4% increased odds of developing type 2 diabetes (OR 1.041, 95% CI 1.005–1.078; p = 0.02). Adjustment for BMI completely abolished the association with incident type 2 diabetes (OR 1.003, 95% CI 0.967–1.039; p = 0.89).Conclusions/interpretationThe genetic predisposition to obesity leads to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, which is completely mediated by its obesity-predisposing effect.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2044-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Gastrointestinal (GI) sensory-motor abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus and may involve any part of the GI tract. Abnormalities are frequently sub-clinical, and fortunately only rarely do severe and life-threatening problems occur. The pathogenesis of abnormal upper GI sensory-motor function in diabetes is incompletely understood and is most likely multi-factorial of origin. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy as well as acute suboptimal control of diabetes has been shown to impair GI motor and sensory function. Morphological and biomechanical remodeling of the GI wall develops during the duration of diabetes, and may contribute to motor and sensory dysfunction. In this review sensory and motility disorders of the upper GI tract in diabetes is discussed; and the morphological changes and biomechanical remodeling related to the sensory-motor dysfunction is also addressed.
The goal of this study is to quantitatively describe the remodeling of the zero-stress state of the femoral artery in flow overload. Increased blood flow, approximately as a unit step change, was imposed on the femoral artery by making an arteriovenous (a-v) fistula with the epigastric vein. The a-v fistula was created in the right leg of 36 rats, which were divided equally into six groups (2 days and 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk after the fistula). The vessels in the left leg were used as controls without operative trauma. The in vivo blood pressure, flow, and femoral outer diameter and the in vitro zero-stress state geometry were measured. The in vivo shear rate at the endothelial surface increased approximately as a step function by approximately 83%, after 2 days, compared with the control artery. The arterial luminal and wall area significantly increased postsurgically from 0.15 +/- 0.02 and 0.22 +/- 0.02 mm(2) to 0.28 +/- 0.04 and 0.31 +/- 0.05 mm(2), respectively, after 12 wk. The wall thickness did not change significantly over time (P > 0.1). The opening angle decreased to 82 +/- 4.2 degrees postsurgically when compared with controls (102 +/- 4.4) after 12 wk and correlated linearly with the thickness-to-radius ratio. Histological analysis revealed vascular smooth muscle cell growth. The remodeling data are expressed mathematically in terms of indicial functions, i.e., change of a particular feature of a blood vessel in response to a unit step change of blood flow. The indicial function approach provides a quantitative description of the remodeling process in the blood vessel wall.
The expression of AGE and RAGE is up-regulated in the small intestine and colon of diabetic rats. The increased AGE and RAGE levels may contribute to diabetic GI dysfunction.
Chronic pancreatitis is a fibrogenic disease. In autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), a lymphoplasmacytic infiltration is followed by fibrosis. In vitro it has been shown that pancreatic stellate cells are transformed into proliferating myofibroblasts mainly by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). We studied the expression of these profibrotic cytokines, their receptors, and their cellular sources in AIP. Pancreatic tissues from 21 patients with AIP of different grades of severity were selected from a series of 52 AIP cases. Myofibroblasts (ie, activated pancreatic stellate cells), macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and the cytokines latency-associated peptide, a TGF-beta1 propeptide, TGF-beta receptor II (TGF-beta-RII), PDGF-B, and the alpha and beta isoforms of the PDGF receptor (PDGF-R alpha and PDGF-R beta) were identified immunohistochemically. Their expression and cellular distribution were related to the severity of AIP. In grade 1 and 2 AIP, macrophages and myofibroblasts expressing profibrotic cytokines and their receptors were found in periductal areas showing lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. In grade 3 AIP, there were numerous macrophages, myofibroblasts, and epithelial cells which were positive for latency-associated peptide, PDGF-B, TGF-beta-RII, PDGF-R alpha, and PDGF-R beta not only in periductal, but also in interlobular and intralobular areas. In grade 4 AIP, which is characterized by advanced fibrosis, cellularity and expression of cytokines and their receptors were greatly reduced. Our data indicate that in AIP the occurrence of myofibroblasts is intimately related to the presence of macrophages and lymphoplasmacytic cells. These cells and adjacent epithelial cells express profibrotic cytokines and their receptors, which are probably responsible for the initiation and maintenance of the fibrogenic process.
Small intestinal obstruction is a frequently encountered clinical problem. To understand the mechanisms behind obstruction and the clinical consequences, data are needed on the relation between the morphologic and biomechanical remodeling that takes place in the intestinal wall during chronic obstruction. We sought to determine the effect of partial obstruction on mechanical and morphologic properties of the guinea pig small intestine. Partial obstruction was created surgically in 2 groups of animals living for 2 and 4 weeks. Controls were sham operated and lived for 4 weeks. A combined impedance planimetry-high-frequency ultrasound system was designed to measure the luminal cross-sectional area and wall thickness. These measures were used to compute the circumferential stress and strain of the excised intestinal segments. The incremental elastic modulus was obtained by using nonlinear fitting of the stress-strain curve. Histologic analysis and the measurements of total wall collagen were also performed. The luminal cross-sectional area, wall thickness, and elastic modulus in circumferential direction increased in a time-dependent manner proximal to the obstruction site (P < 0.01), whereas no differences in these parameters were found distal to the obstruction site (P > 0.25). The circumferential stress-strain curves of the proximal segments in 2- and 4-week groups shifted to the left, indicating the intestinal wall became stiffer. Histologic examination revealed a massive increase in the thickness of the muscle layer especially the circular smooth muscle layer (P < 0.05). The collagen content proximal to the obstruction site was significantly larger in the partially obstructed animals compared to controls (P < 0.05). No difference was found distal to the obstruction site. Strong correlation was found between the collagen content and the elastic modulus at stress levels of 70 kPa stress (P < 0.01) and 10 kPa (P < 0.05) proximal to the obstruction site suggesting that the alteration of collagen has great impact on the mechanical remodeling. The morphologic and biomechanical remodeling likely influence the function of the intestine affected by partial obstructed intestine.
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