The reproducibility and tolerability of intradermal (i.d.) administration of capsaicin as a method for eliciting human pain was assessed in healthy male volunteers (n = 12). The primary endpoints for assessing pain were spontaneous pain response and areas of allodynia, pinprick hyperalgesia and neurogenic inflammation. These were recorded before, immediately after, and at regular intervals following each of four doses (250 microg) of capsaicin (two per trial day). Within- and between-subject variability to the technique was assessed by measuring the maximum recorded values (max), time to maximum value (t(max)) and area under the curve (AUC(0-1 h)) of each of the endpoints. Tolerability to the technique was addressed by recording adverse events. Reproducibility of the i.d. capsaicin model was demonstrated for each type of capsaicin-induced pain. Following each dose, the magnitude and profile of response and overall AUC values were similar for each parameter although some decrease in pinprick hyperalgesia was observed over time. For spontaneous pain, evidence of a period effect was observed in mean AUC data, with values increasing following the second dose of each trial day. This effect was confounded by the possibility of an arm effect, with the non-dominant arm appearing to be more sensitive to pain than the dominant arm. The data were not sufficient to confirm the existence of these effects. Between-subject variability and within-day, within-subject variability accounted for most of the variability observed in the trial. By optimising study design to eliminate these sources of variability, it was estimated that spontaneous pain and the area of allodynia would be the least variable endpoints. A positive correlation was found between the area of allodynia and area of pinprick hyperalgesia (r(2) = 0.835). Overall, the model was well tolerated with no reports of adverse events. We conclude that the tolerability profile, and variability of i.d. capsaicin-induced pain is acceptable for pharmacological profiling of novel anti-nociceptive agents, with limited number of subjects.
Deregulation of the cell cycle has long been recognized as an essential driver of tumorigenesis, and agents that selectively target key cell cycle components continue to hold promise as potential therapeutics. We have developed AZD5438, a 4-(1-isopropyl-2-methylimidazol-5-yl)-2-(4-methylsulphonylanilino) pyrimidine, as a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 1, 2, and 9 (IC 50 , 16, 6, and 20 nmol/L, respectively). In vitro, AZD5438 showed significant antiproliferative activity in human tumor cell lines (IC 50 range, 0.2-1.7 μmol/L), causing inhibition of the phosphorylation of cdk substrates pRb, nucleolin, protein phosphatase 1a, and RNA polymerase II COOH-terminal domain and blocking cell cycling at G 2 -M, S, and G 1 phases. In vivo, when orally administered at either 50 mg/kg twice daily or 75 mg/kg once daily, AZD5438 inhibited human tumor xenograft growth (maximum percentage tumor growth inhibition, range, 38-153; P < 0.05). In vivo, AZD5438 reduced the proportion of actively cycling cells. Further pharmacodynamic analysis of AZD5438-treated SW620 xenografts showed that efficacious doses of AZD5438 (>40% tumor growth inhibition) maintained suppression of biomarkers, such as phospho-pRbSer 249 /Thr 252 , for up to 16 hours following a single oral dose. A comparison of different schedules indicated that chronic daily oral dosing provided optimal cover to ensure antitumor efficacy. These data indicate that broad cdk inhibition may provide an effective method to impair the dysregulated cell cycle that drives tumorigenesis and AZD5438 has the pharmacologic profile that provides an ideal probe to test this premise.
M30 and M65 are ELISAs that detect different circulating forms of cytokeratin 18. Using the aurora kinase inhibitor AZD1152 and the SW620 human colon cancer xenograft, experiments were conducted to qualify preclinically both assays as serologic biomarkers of cell death. Using two different apoptotic markers, the kinetics of cell death induced by AZD1152 was first characterized in vitro in three different cell lines and shown to peak 5 to 7 days after drug addition. Treatment of non-tumor-bearing rats with AZD1152 (25 mg/kg) produced no alterations in circulating baseline values of M30 and M65 antigens. In treated, tumor-bearing animals, M30 detected a 2-to 3-fold (P < 0.05) increase in plasma antigen levels by day 5 compared with controls. This correlated to a 3-fold increase in the number of apoptotic cells detected on day 5 in SW620 xenografts using immunohistochemistry. By contrast, M65 did not detect a drug-induced increase in circulating antigen levels at day 5. However, M65 plasma levels correlated to changes in tumor growth in control animals (r 2 = 0.93; P < 0.01) and also followed the magnitude of the temporal effect of AZD1152 on tumor growth. An intermediate but active dose of AZD1152 (12.5 mg/kg) produced a less significant increase in M30 plasma levels at day 5. It was also confirmed that the plasma profiles of M30 and M65 mirrored closely those measured in whole tumor lysates. We conclude that M30 is a pharmacodynamic biomarker of AZD1152-induced apoptosis in the SW620 xenograft model, whereas M65 is a biomarker of therapeutic response.
ObjectiveTo report a simplified and effective method for substratification of M1 castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) by correlating progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with simple quantification of skeletal metastases.
Patients and MethodsIn all, 561 men with M1 CRPC were studied longitudinally. Individual bone scan disease burden, quantified by counting bone metastasis number, was correlated with clinical outcome using specific threshold points of 1-4, 5-20 and >20 detectable lesions.
ResultsPatients with a higher metastasis number had a shorter PFS and OS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-2.4; P < 0.001). Patients with 1-4 metastases had much better PFS and OS than those with 5-20 metastases. The median PFS and OS in the latter was 10.9 (95% CI 8.4-12.8) and 22.1 (95% CI: 18.5-24.5) months, respectively. PFS and OS for patients with >20 metastases were shorter still [median 5.3 (95% CI 3.4-6.9) months and 13.3 (95% CI 11.3-17.6) months, respectively]. Dichotomising into cohorts with 1-4 and ≥5 metastases, the latter group had considerably poorer PFS [8.4 (95% CI 6.8-10.3) months; P < 0.001) and OS [18.7 (95% CI 17.5-22.1) months; P < 0.001].
ConclusionsDichotomising patients with CRPC into cohorts with 1-4 or ≥5 skeletal metastases identifies a better and a worse cohort in a manner that is easy and clinically accessible. This simple method facilitates disease stratification and patient management, enabling clinicians to counsel patients more effectively about long-term outcomes and to help select intervention therapies more effectively.
The modest PD effect, short plasma t1/2 and close PK-PD relationship suggest that multiple daily dosing or sustained release formulations at higher doses will be necessary for AZD5438 to achieve sustained inhibition of CDK in human cancers.
Despite the small numbers of subjects assessed in the current study, these results confirm that measurement of apoptosis biomarkers may help to provide clinically useful information to manage sepsis and expedite development of novel therapeutics. However, further investigations to fully assess their prognostic value are required.
AZD5438 is a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with preclinical pharmacodynamic (PD) activity against a range of human tumour xenografts. A first-in-man tolerability and pharmacokinetic (PK) study involving single ascending doses of AZD5438 was conducted in healthy male volunteers. Single oral doses ranging from 5 to 160 mg were studied in 23 subjects. Dose-limiting nausea and vomiting occurred at 160 mg in the absence of prophylactic anti-emetics. The maximum tolerated dose (the dose at which no dose limiting toxicities occurred) was 80 mg, and the maximum well-tolerated dose was deemed to be 60 mg, which was associated with grade1 nausea but no vomiting. Tmax occurred between 0.5-3.0 hours with a relatively short plasma half-life of 1-3 h. The coefficient of variation of exposures within a dose level ranged from 22-71% (AUC) to 16-63% (C max), and exposure increased with increasing dose across the doses studied. <1% of the parent compound was excreted in the urine, suggesting metabolism as the major clearance mechanism. The maximum well-tolerated dose and a number of doses below this level will be taken forward into a PD study using normal tissue biomarkers in humans to determine proof of AZD5438's action on the cell cycle. The pharmacokinetic profile of AZD5438 determined within this study will be used to guide the time-points for PD analysis within the planned PD study.
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