There is no detailed information on clinical and immunopathologic features of immunoglobulin M nephropathy (IgMN) in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in Pakistan. We reviewed our native renal biopsies over 15 years (July 1995-July 2010) and identified 135 cases of IgMN in nephrotic children (≤17 years). Their demographic, clinical and immunopathologic data were retrieved from biopsy reports and case notes. Mean age of this cohort was 7.6 ± 4.2 years. Males were 92 (68.1%) and females were 43 (31.9%). Steroid-dependent NS was seen in 88 (65.2%) cases and steroid-resistant NS in 47 (34.2%). Hematuria was found in 42 cases (31.2%) and hypertension in 27 (19.5%). The most common morphologic change was glomerular mesangial proliferation, found in 89 (65.9%) biopsies. Minor changes were seen in 46 (34.1%) cases and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in 37 (27.4%). Immunofluorescence microscopy showed diffuse mesangial positivity of IgM in all cases. C3 and C1q were found in 72 (53.3%) and 40 (29.7%) cases, respectively. Our results show that IgMN is a fairly common cause of INS in children in Pakistan. It shows a spectrum of morphologic changes ranging from minor changes to FSGS.
MCD and its variants are the leading cause of overall INS in children, followed by FSGS, which is the predominant pathology in steroid-resistant and adolescent nephrotic syndrome (NS). Our data are in accordance with recent series from around the world with similar biopsy indications. The study defines the true pattern of glomerulopathies in childhood INS for the first time in Pakistan.
We retrospectively analyzed the results of 75 living-related pediatric renal transplants performed at our center between January 1986 and December 1999. The major causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were glomerulonephritis (26%) and nephrolithiasis (16%), while the etiology was unknown in 50%. The mean age of the recipients was 12 yr (range 6-17 yr) and that of the donors was 39 yr (range 20-65 yr). The majority (73%) of donors were parents. Eighty five per cent of donors were one-haplotype matched and the rest identical. Immunosuppression was based on a triple drug regimen. Thirty per cent of recipients were rapid metabolizers of cyclosporin A (CsA) (area under the curve [AUC]: < 6,000 ng/mL/h), while 16% were slow metabolizers (AUC: > 8,000 ng/mL/h). Forty three (57%) children encountered 59 rejection episodes, the majority of which (59%) were recorded in the first month post-transplant. Seventy-four per cent of the rejection episodes were steroid sensitive and the rest, except two, were resolved by therapy with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or orthoclone thymocyte 3 (OKT3). After a mean follow-up of 37 months, 17 (22%) grafts had chronic rejection and 76% of these recipients had previously experienced acute rejection episodes. The overall infection rate was high, necessitating two hospital admissions/patient/year. The majority (53%) of the infections were bacterial. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) were seen in 17 (23%) recipients. Twelve of these had ESRD as a result of stone disease and eight grafts were lost because of UTIs. Eight per cent of recipients developed tuberculosis (TB), and extra-pulmonary lesions were seen in 50%. Surgical complications were encountered in eight patients. Free medication to all recipients and parental support ensured a compliance rate of 93%. Baseline growth deficit was seen in children of the two groups studied (the 6-12 yr and 13-17 yr age-groups), with Z-scores of - 2.39 and - 2.12, respectively. No growth catch-up was observed at 12 and 24 months in either group. Post-donation complications were seen most commonly in donors > 50 yr of age and included: proteinuria (> 300 mg/24 h, four patients), hypertension (three patients), and diabetes (one patient). Twenty-four grafts were lost, 54% as a result of immunological and the rest as a result of non-immunological causes, and 17 recipients died during the follow-up period. Infections were the main cause of patient and graft loss. Overall 1- and 5-yr graft and patient survival rates were 88% and 65%, and 90% and 75%, respectively.
IgM nephropathy (IgMN) is an idiopathic immune complex-mediated glomerulopathy that was first described as a distinct disease in a nephropathology literature in 1978. Here, a historical review and the current status of IgMN in the light of world literature and the current experience will be presented. The Pubmed (www.pubmed.gov) search was made for articles on IgMN as the sole subject of the study or where it constituted a significant number of cases in a biopsy series in the world literature written in English. A total of 41 articles were found. A critical review of the literature was made. Soon after 1978, a series of reports were published mostly from the western world, but the interest in the entity did not withstand the test of time. No substantial basic medical research was carried out and the disease was largely ignored by the western researchers. More recently, a flurry of articles have appeared in the literature on the topic, mostly from tropical countries, and have renewed the interest in the entity. However, most of the current literature on IgMN is based on clinical observations, and experimental models and mechanistic studies of IgMN are lacking. There is an urgent need to develop consensus based criteria for the diagnosis of the condition, as well as, to focus the research on mechanistic studies to understand the pathogenesis of the disease better.
Results from this study indicate that FSGS is the single most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adult nephrotic patients, followed by MGN, and MCD. Our data are similar to those reported in recent series from the US. The study defines the pattern of glomerular disease in adult nephrotic patients for the first time in this region, because it is based on light microscopy, serology, IMF, and EM findings.
Background: There is little information in literature on renal allograft biopsy findings in renal allograft dysfunction in live related renal transplant recipients. Material and Methods:A retrospective review of 1210 renal allograft biopsies from 575 renal transplant patients was carried out over a period of seven years from June 1997 till December 2004. The demographic, clinical, laboratory and biopsy findings were collected and analyzed.Results: A total of 1210 graft biopsies were performed on 575 patients. The mean age of recipients and donors was 29.2±9.7 years, and 35.7±10.5 years, respectively. The males were predominant among recipients (76.7 vs. 23.3%), while among donors they only slightly outnumbered females (51.8 vs. 48.2%).Regarding pathological lesions, acute rejection was seen in 292 (24%) cases, followed by acute tubular injury and cyclosporine A (CsA) toxicity, found in 281 (23.2%) and 134 (11%) cases respectively. Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) with variable degree of tubular atrophy was seen in 361 (29.8%) cases. Seventy nine cases (6.5%) of acute pyelonephritis were detected on graft biopsies. A number of rare lesions were also found, including 13 (1.07%) cases of recurrent/de novo renal disease, and 13 (1.07%) of polyoma virus infection. Five cases of CsA induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) were also noted. Conclusion:In conclusion, the incidence of acute rejection is low in our patients as compared to cadaveric renal transplant recipients as reported in Western studies and CsA toxicity is more common. Recurrent/de novo renal disease is uncommon in our patients.
Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a common problem in pediatric nephrology practice. There is currently little information in the literature on the spectrum of histopathologic lesions in children presenting with SRNS in Pakistan. This study was designed to determine the histopathologic lesions in children presenting with SRNS at our center. The study was conducted at the Histopathology Department, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) from January 2009 to August 2011. All children (≤16 years) presenting with SRNS, in whom renal biopsies were performed, were included. Their demographic, clinical, laboratory, and histopathological data were retrieved from files and original renal biopsy forms. The results were analyzed by SPSS version 10.0. A total of 147 children were included. Of these, 91 (61.9%) were males and 56 (38.1%) females, with male-to-female ratio of 1.6 : 1. The mean age was 7.03 ± 4.0 years (range: 6 months–16 years). The histopathological lesions seen on renal biopsies comprised of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (38.5%), followed by minimal change disease (MCD) (23.2%), IgM nephropathy (IgMN) (13.6%), idiopathic mesangial proliferative GN (10.2%), membranous GN (8.2%), and mesangiocapillary GN (4.8%). Our results indicate that FSGS is the predominant lesion in children with SRNS, followed by MCD and IgMN.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers