The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the intensification of environmental degradation, measured as deforestation, and authorized mining activities within Conservation Units in the Amazon biome using a mixed methodology combining the use of the Leopold matrix and analysis of satellite images obtained through Google Earth and Qgis. The hypothesis was that mining activities in federal Conservation Units, indirectly increase deforestation at the edges of, and even inside, Conservation Units due to interest from other sectors of the economy. In order to determine mining incidence, the characteristics of institutional environmental management mechanisms in Conservation Units, and the profile of requests for and issuance of mining licenses in protected areas, a sample of 30 cases was selected and studied. Databases from several agencies were also employed and the Leopold matrix was used to identify and classify different types of environmental impact and detect correlations among them.
Introduction Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) exhibits extensive genotypic diversity, but the role of this variation is poorly understood. Objective To evaluate the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in preschoolers with and without early dental care and to associate it with dental caries experience. Material and method Twenty children, aged five year old, with history of dental care since they were one year old (G1) and 20 children without history of dental care (G2) were included. Their oral health status was assessed by the dmft index. S. mutans samples were isolated from the saliva and analysed by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 339 S. mutans isolates (173 from G1 and 166 from G2) were genotyped by random amplified polymorphic DNA with arbitrary primers OPA-02 and OPA-13. Result The results revealed 75 distinct genotypes of S. mutans in G1 and 73 in G2. Furthermore, G1 and G2 subjects harboured one to eight and one to seven distinct genotypes of S. mutans, respectively. A statistically significant association (P=0.021) and a moderate correlation (r= 0.503) were observed between dental caries experience and genotypic diversity of S. mutans in G1. Conclusion From the limitations of the study design, we just can hypothesize that actions of early dental care carried out by an educative-preventive program can contribute to a distinct oral microbiota.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic due to the new coronavirus (COVID-19). Several countries responded to this threat by introducing quarantine measures to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 in the community. These measures have drastically reduced human activities, causing an impact on urban air pollution due to the associated reduction in automobile use and other polluting activities. We investigated this effect with measurements of Particulate Material (PM10), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and Ozone (O3), carried out by the environmental departments of the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, for two months in 2020. We compared them with data for the corresponding months in 2019, relating to the social isolation index, measured by the Mathematics and Statistic Institute of São Paulo (IME-USP). The results show a significant decrease in NO2 and CO and an increase in O3, and little change in Particulate Material.
Esta pesquisa propõe identificar os problemas gerados pelo manejo inadequado de resíduos em uma favela pertencente à região do Pólo Multissetorial de Maceió (AL). Pretende-se observar os reflexos desse manejo na saúde dos indivíduos que ali residem, sua relação com a bacia de drenagem de água pluvial e a rotina de atividades inerentes ao Pólo. Para tanto, foram realizadas pesquisas de campo, aplicado questionários, realizado entrevistas e registros fotográficos. A partir destes dados, foi possível constatar que a comunidade em estudo, por ter seu esgoto interligado a uma bacia de drenagem, contribui diretamente para a geração de impactos que atingem questões relacionadas ao fluxo de águas pluviais, ao saneamento básico e por sua vez, a saúde dos habitantes da região. A situação dos moradores atinge também o objetivo de desenvolvimento sustentável n. 6 da Agenda 2030 das Nações Unidas. É possível, por meio do parâmetro do direito à moradia adequada, entender a complexidade dos impactos de um sistema de saneamento básico deficiente sobre a gama de direitos humanos que o Estado deve proteger. Assim, este trabalho tem sua justificativa, dada a importância científica e social de dialogar sobre o planejamento para o manejo dos resíduos, vista que são gerados cerca de 183,5 mil toneladas de resíduos sólidos/dia, segundo dados de 2012 do Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada, IPEA, bem como a um consumo de água que chega a 165,3 litros/habitante/dia, o qual se tornará esgoto. Logo, estudar dos mecanismos de como lidar com estes resíduos é de extrema importância.
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