Hip arthroplasty has become the standard treatment for end-stage hip disease, allowing pain relief and restoration of mobility in large numbers of patients; however, pain after hip arthroplasty occurs in as many as 40% of cases, and despite improved longevity, all implants eventually fail with time. Owing to the increasing numbers of hip arthroplasty procedures performed, the demographic factors, and the metal-on-metal arthroplasty systems with their associated risk for the development of adverse local tissue reactions to metal products, there is a growing demand for an accurate diagnosis of symptoms related to hip arthroplasty implants and for a way to monitor patients at risk. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has evolved into a powerful diagnostic tool for the evaluation of hip arthroplasty implants. Optimized conventional pulse sequences and metal artifact reduction techniques afford improved depiction of bone, implant-tissue interfaces, and periprosthetic soft tissue for the diagnosis of arthroplasty-related complications. Strategies for MR imaging of hip arthroplasty implants are presented, as well as the imaging appearances of common causes of painful and dysfunctional hip arthroplasty systems, including stress reactions and fractures; bone resorption and aseptic loosening; polyethylene wear-induced synovitis and osteolysis; adverse local tissue reactions to metal products; infection; heterotopic ossification; tendinopathy; neuropathy; and periprosthetic neoplasms. A checklist is provided for systematic evaluation of MR images of hip arthroplasty implants. MR imaging with optimized conventional pulse sequences and metal artifact reduction techniques is a comprehensive imaging modality for the evaluation of the hip after arthroplasty, contributing important information for diagnosis, prognosis, risk stratification, and surgical planning.
Primary total knee arthroplasty is a highly effective treatment that relieves pain and improves joint function in a large percentage of patients. Despite an initially satisfactory surgical outcome, pain, dysfunction, and implant failure can occur over time. Identifying the etiology of complications is vital for appropriate management and proper timing of revision. Due to the increasing number of knee arthroplasties performed and decreasing patient age at implantation, there is a demand for accurate diagnosis to determine appropriate treatment of symptomatic joints following knee arthroplasty, and for monitoring of patients at risk. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows for comprehensive imaging evaluation of the tissues surrounding knee arthroplasty implants with metallic components, including the polyethylene components. Optimized conventional and advanced pulse sequences can result in substantial metallic artifact reduction and afford improved visualization of bone, implant-tissue interfaces, and periprosthetic soft tissue for the diagnosis of arthroplasty-related complications. In this review article, we discuss strategies for MR imaging around knee arthroplasty implants and illustrate the imaging appearances of common modes of failure, including aseptic loosening, polyethylene wear-induced synovitis and osteolysis, periprosthetic joint infections, fracture, patellar clunk syndrome, recurrent hemarthrosis, arthrofibrosis, component malalignment, extensor mechanism injury, and instability. A systematic approach is provided for evaluation of MR imaging of knee implants. MR imaging with optimized conventional pulse sequences and advanced metal artifact reduction techniques can contribute important information for diagnosis, prognosis, risk stratification, and surgical planning.
Imaging studies are central to the evaluation of persistent or recurrent symptoms after hip arthroplasty. The evaluation starts with radiographs and may be followed by arthrography, aspiration, scintigraphy, sonography, computed tomography, and MR imaging. Common etiologies of a painful or dysfunctional hip arthroplasty are mechanical loosening, polyethylene wear?induced osteolysis, adverse local tissue reaction to metal wear products, infection, fractures, heterotopic ossification, tendinopathy, and nerve injury. MR imaging with optimized protocols and dedicated techniques for metal artifact reduction is the most comprehensive imaging modality. In this article, we discuss and illustrate the imaging appearances of these conditions with a focus on the MR imaging evaluation.
Three-dimensional SPACE with 2D CAIPIRINHA sampling pattern enables high-quality 3D TSE MRI of the knee at an acquisition time of 5 minutes and image quality, visibility of anatomic structures, SNR, and CNR similar to conventional 3D SPACE and 2D TSE, both of which require approximately 10-minute acquisition times.
We accept the hypothesis that prospective compressed sensing acceleration of SEMAC is feasible for high-quality metal artifact reduction MRI of cobalt-chromium knee arthroplasty implants in less than 5 minutes and yields better quality than high-BW TSE and similarly high quality than lengthier SEMAC pulse sequences.
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