BackgroundTimely breastfeeding initiation is a simple but important measure that has protective effects on infants and mothers. This study aims to determine the predictors of early breastfeeding initiation among mothers residing in Ethiopia.MethodsThis study employed the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data. A total of 5546 children born during the last 24 months at the time of survey were included for analysis from nine regional states and two city administration areas. Socio-demographic and socio-economic factors including individual, household and community-level factors were examined of their significance against the outcome variable of early initiation of breastfeeding using a mixed-effect logistic regression model.ResultsThe proportion of infants who had timely initiation of breastfeeding was 74.3% (n = 3064). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, mothers who delivered with assistance of one or more health professionals had 68% (AOR 1.68; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.29) higher odds of initiating timely breastfeeding. In addition, mothers delivering by a caesarean section had 86% reduced odds of early breastfeeding initiation (AOR 0.14; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.22) when compared to mothers who had vaginal delivery. In terms of socio-demographic factors, the odds of early breastfeeding initiation were more than two and half times higher particularly for mothers residing particularly in Oromiya (AOR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.84, 3.63) and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP) (AOR 2.75; 95% CI: 1.86, 4.05). In addition, timely breastfeeding initiation was also significantly associated with wealth index with wealthier mothers having 43% higher odds compared to mothers of poorest households (AOR 1.43; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.92). Other factors such as age, gender and birth order of the infant also had significant associations with early breastfeeding initiation.ConclusionEarly breastfeeding initiation in Ethiopia is inextricably associated with various socio-demographic, biomedical, and socio-economic factors. The study findings can potentially inform mothers and the wider community on the benefits of timely breastfeeding initiation and policymakers and community leaders to target health promotional interventions and resources where needed.
Aim. To assess the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene knowledge, status, and practices among visually impaired individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 visually impaired individuals in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu. Four schools were randomly selected for conducting the study. The oral hygiene status, prevalence of caries, and knowledge and attitude towards oral care among visually impaired individuals were collected and analysed. Results. In the present study, whilst 42% of individuals had fair oral hygiene status, 33% had good hygiene followed by 25% having poor oral hygiene. The overall mean number of DMFT was estimated to be 4.5 ± 2.7. The mean number of decayed teeth was 3.1 ± 2.2, mean number of missing teeth was 0.8 ± 1.4, and mean number of filled teeth was 0.5 ± 1.3. Conclusion. Whilst oral hygiene status was found to be relatively fair, there was a high rate of dental caries among the sample population. This shows that there is lack of knowledge regarding oral health maintenance. Therefore, early identification of caries coupled with effective oral health promotion programs providing practical knowledge to visually impaired students would prove beneficial.
Evidence suggests that patient-centred medical home (PCMH) is more effective than standard general practitioner care in improving patient outcomes in primary care. This paper reports on the design, early implementation experiences, and early findings of the 12-month PCMH model called ‘WellNet’ delivered across six primary care practices in Sydney, Australia. The WellNet study sample comprises 589 consented participants in the intervention group receiving enhanced primary care in the form of patient-tailored chronic disease management plan, improved self-management support, and regular monitoring by general practitioners (GPs) and trained clinical coordinators. The comparison group consisted of 7750 patients who were matched based on age, gender, type and number of chronic diseases who received standard GP care. Data collected include sociodemographic characteristics, clinical measures, and self-reported health assessments at baseline and 12 months. Early study findings show the mean age of the study participants was 70 years with nearly even gender distribution of males (49.7%) and females (50.3%). The most prevalent chronic diseases in descending order were circulatory system disorders (69.8%), diabetes (47.4%), musculoskeletal disorders (43.5%), respiratory diseases (28.7%), mental illness (18.8%), and cancer (13.6%). To our knowledge, the WellNet study is the first study in Australia to generate evidence on the feasibility of design, recruitment, and implementation of a comprehensive PCMH model. Lessons learned from WellNet study may inform other medical home models in Australian primary care settings.
Background: The rapid emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive organisms, especially staphylococci, has become a serious clinical challenge. Efflux machinery and biofilm formation are considered two of the main causes of antimicrobial resistance and therapy failure. Aim: Our study aims to evaluate the antibiofilm and efflux pump inhibitory activity of the antifungal ketoconazole against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus . Methods: Ketoconazole was tested for its effect on the following: minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin, and ethidium bromide (EtBr) by the broth microdilution method, the efflux of EtBr by NorA -positive MDR S. aureus , and the relative expression of NorA, NorB , and NorC efflux pump genes. Docking studies of ketoconazole were performed using 1PW4 (glycerol-3-phosphate transporter from Escherichia coli which was the representative structure from the major facilitator superfamily). Results: Ketoconazole significantly decreased the MICs of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and EtBr (a substrate for efflux pump) by 8 to 1024-fold ( P <0.01) and decreased the efflux of EtBr. Furthermore, a time-kill assay revealed that combinations of levofloxacin with ketoconazole or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone showed no growth for the tested strains after 24 h in comparison to the effect of levofloxacin alone. Docking studies and the ability of ketoconazole to diminish the relative expression of NorA gene in comparison to control (untreated strains) confirmed its action as an efflux pump inhibitor. Conclusion: The findings showed that the antifungal ketoconazole has no antibacterial activity but can potentiate the activity of the fluroquinolones against MDR S. aureus via inhibiting efflux pump and biofilm formation in vitro.
BackgroundRegular dental attendance is significant in maintaining and improving children’s oral health and well-being. This study aims to determine the factors that predict and influence dental visits in primary school children residing in the rural community of Lithgow, New South Wales (NSW), Australia.MethodsAll six primary schools of Lithgow were approached to participate in a cross-sectional survey prior to implementing water fluoridation in 2014. Children aged 6–13 years (n = 667) were clinically examined for their oral health status and parents were requested to complete a questionnaire on fluoride history, diet, last dental visit, and socio-demographic characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the independent predictors of a 6-monthly and a yearly dental visit.ResultsOverall, 53% of children visited a dentist within six months and 77% within twelve months. In multiple logistic regression analyses, age of the child and private health insurance coverage were significantly associated with both 6-monthly and twelve-month dental visits. In addition, each serve of chocolate consumption was significantly associated with a 27% higher odds (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.05-1.54) of a 6-monthly dental visit.ConclusionIt is imperative that the socio-demographic and dietary factors that influence child oral health must be effectively addressed when developing the oral health promotion policies to ensure better oral health outcomes.
The widespread use of antimicrobials has increased the occurrence of multidrug resistant microbes. The commonest mechanism of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is production of β-lactamases such as metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Few studies have used a molecular approach to characterize the prevalence of β-lactamases. Here, the prevalence of different β-lactamases was characterized by performing three multiplex PCRs targeting genes similar to those described in earlier publications. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests for all isolates were performed using the agar dilution method. β-lactamase was detected in 72% of the isolates, the detection rate being 64% in 2011 and 75% in 2012. The isolates were highly resistant to carbapenems such as meropenem and imipenem and susceptible to colistin and tigecycline. In this study, 22% of isolates contained both MBL and ESBL. ESBL was detected more frequently in Escherichia coli isolates, whereas carbapenemase was detected more frequently in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. These findings suggest the spread of multi-resistant ESBL and MBL producers in the community. Our results have implications for patient treatment and also indicate the need for increased surveillance and molecular characterization of isolates.
Dental caries persists as one of the most prevalent chronic diseases among children worldwide. This study aims to determine factors that influence dental caries in primary dentition among primary school children residing in the rural non-fluoridated community of Lithgow, New South Wales, Australia. A total of 495 children aged 5–10 years old from all the six primary schools in Lithgow were approached to participate in a cross-sectional survey prior to implementation of water fluoridation in 2014. Following parental consent, children were clinically examined for caries in their primary teeth, and parents were requested to complete a questionnaire on previous fluoride exposure, diet and relevant socio-demographic characteristics that influence oral health. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the independent risk factors of primary dentition caries. Overall, 51 percent of children had dental caries in one or more teeth. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, child’s age (Adjusted Odd’s Ratio (AOR) = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.14–1.49) and mother’s extraction history (AOR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.40–3.00) were significantly associated with caries experience in the child’s primary teeth. In addition, each serve of chocolate consumption was associated with 52 percent higher odds (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.19–1.93) of primary dentition caries.
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