The most significant barrier to success in human activity recognition is extracting and selecting the right features. In traditional methods, the features are chosen by humans, which requires the user to have expert knowledge or to do a large amount of empirical study. Newly developed deep learning technology can automatically extract and select features. Among the various deep learning methods, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have the advantages of local dependency and scale invariance and are suitable for temporal data such as accelerometer (ACC) signals. In this paper, we propose an efficient human activity recognition method, namely Iss2Image (Inertial sensor signal to Image), a novel encoding technique for transforming an inertial sensor signal into an image with minimum distortion and a CNN model for image-based activity classification. Iss2Image converts real number values from the X, Y, and Z axes into three color channels to precisely infer correlations among successive sensor signal values in three different dimensions. We experimentally evaluated our method using several well-known datasets and our own dataset collected from a smartphone and smartwatch. The proposed method shows higher accuracy than other state-of-the-art approaches on the tested datasets.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel harmful respiratory disease that has rapidly spread worldwide. At the end of 2019, COVID-19 emerged as a previously unknown respiratory disease in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The world health organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus outbreak a pandemic in the second week of March 2020. Simultaneous deep learning detection and classification of COVID-19 based on the full resolution of digital X-ray images is the key to efficiently assisting patients by enabling physicians to reach a fast and accurate diagnosis decision. In this paper, a simultaneous deep learning computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on the YOLO predictor is proposed that can detect and diagnose COVID-19, differentiating it from eight other respiratory diseases: atelectasis, infiltration, pneumothorax, masses, effusion, pneumonia, cardiomegaly, and nodules. The proposed CAD system was assessed via five-fold tests for the multi-class prediction problem using two different databases of chest X-ray images: COVID-19 and ChestX-ray8. The proposed CAD system was trained with an annotated training set of 50,490 chest X-ray images. The regions on the entire X-ray images with lesions suspected of being due to COVID-19 were simultaneously detected and classified end-to-end via the proposed CAD predictor, achieving overall detection and classification accuracies of 96.31% and 97.40%, respectively. Most test images from patients with confirmed COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases were correctly predicted, achieving average intersection over union (IoU) greater than 90%. Applying deep learning regularizers of data balancing and augmentation improved the COVID-19 diagnostic performance by 6.64% and 12.17% in terms of the overall accuracy and the F1-score, respectively. It is feasible to achieve a diagnosis based on individual chest X-ray images with the proposed CAD system within 0.0093 s. Thus, the CAD system presented in this paper can make a prediction at the rate of 108 frames/s (FPS), which is close to real-time. The proposed deep learning CAD system can reliably differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory diseases. The proposed deep learning model seems to be a reliable tool that can be used to practically assist health care systems, patients, and physicians.
Recently, social media have been used by researchers to detect depressive symptoms in individuals using linguistic data from users’ posts. In this study, we propose a framework to identify social information as a significant predictor of depression. Using the proposed framework, we develop an application called the Socially Mediated Patient Portal (SMPP), which detects depression-related markers in Facebook users by applying a data-driven approach with machine learning classification techniques. We examined a data set of 4350 users who were evaluated for depression using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. From this analysis, we identified a set of features that can distinguish between individuals with and without depression. Finally, we identified the dominant features that adequately assess individuals with and without depression on social media. The model trained on these features will be helpful to physicians in diagnosing mental diseases and psychiatrists in analysing patient behaviour.
There is sufficient evidence proving the impact that negative lifestyle choices have on people’s health and wellness. Changing unhealthy behaviours requires raising people’s self-awareness and also providing healthcare experts with a thorough and continuous description of the user’s conduct. Several monitoring techniques have been proposed in the past to track users’ behaviour; however, these approaches are either subjective and prone to misreporting, such as questionnaires, or only focus on a specific component of context, such as activity counters. This work presents an innovative multimodal context mining framework to inspect and infer human behaviour in a more holistic fashion. The proposed approach extends beyond the state-of-the-art, since it not only explores a sole type of context, but also combines diverse levels of context in an integral manner. Namely, low-level contexts, including activities, emotions and locations, are identified from heterogeneous sensory data through machine learning techniques. Low-level contexts are combined using ontological mechanisms to derive a more abstract representation of the user’s context, here referred to as high-level context. An initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification is also presented. The developed system is evaluated for various realistic scenarios making use of a novel multimodal context open dataset and data on-the-go, demonstrating prominent context-aware capabilities at both low and high levels.
The user experience (UX) is an emerging field in user research and design, and the development of UX evaluation methods presents a challenge for both researchers and practitioners. Different UX evaluation methods have been developed to extract accurate UX data. Among UX evaluation methods, the mixed-method approach of triangulation has gained importance. It provides more accurate and precise information about the user while interacting with the product. However, this approach requires skilled UX researchers and developers to integrate multiple devices, synchronize them, analyze the data, and ultimately produce an informed decision. In this paper, a method and system for measuring the overall UX over time using a triangulation method are proposed. The proposed platform incorporates observational and physiological measurements in addition to traditional ones. The platform reduces the subjective bias and validates the user’s perceptions, which are measured by different sensors through objectification of the subjective nature of the user in the UX assessment. The platform additionally offers plug-and-play support for different devices and powerful analytics for obtaining insight on the UX in terms of multiple participants.
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