The paper describes an investigation of a subjectively distinguishable element of high speed jet noise known as ‘crackle’. ‘Crackle’ cannot be characterized by the normal spectral description of noise. It is shown to be due to intense spasmodic short-duration compressive elements of the wave form. These elements have low energy spread over a wide frequency range. The crackling of a large jet engine is caused by groups of sharp compressions in association with gradual expansions. The groups occur at random and persist for some 10−1s, each group containing about 10 compressions, typically of strength 5 × 10−3 atmos at a distance of 50 m. The skewness of the amplitude probability distribution of the recorded sound quantifies crackle, though the recording process probably changes the skewness level. Skewness values in excess of unity have been measured; noises with skewness less than 0·3 seem to be crackle free. Crackle is uninfluenced by the jet scale, but varies strongly with jet velocity and angular position. The jet temperature does not affect crackle, neither does combustion. Supersonic jets crackle strongly whether or not they are ideally expanded through convergent-divergent nozzles. Crackle is formed (we think) because of local shock formation due to nonlinear wave steepening at the source and not from long-term nonlinear propagation. Such long-term effects are important in flight, where they are additive. Some jet noise suppressors inhibit crackle.
This paper discusses the sound generated when an inhomogeneity in density is convected in a low Mach number steady flow through a contraction in a duct of infinite extent, and also when the inhomogeneity exhausts through a nozzle into free space. The analyses of Candel (1972) and Marble (1973) for the case of duct flow were based on a frequency decomposition of the incident inhomogeneity and cannot adequately deal with sharp-fronted inhomogeneities and entropy spots. However, the practical difficulties of this earlier work can be avoided at low flow Mach numbers by conducting the analysis in terms of an approximate expression for the acoustic Green's function in the manner described by Howe (1975). This method also permits a considerable extension of the range of the earlier investigations to the determination of the sound generated when the inhomogeneity is swept out of a nozzle orifice into free space. It is shown that the acoustic pressure perturbations developed in a duct at a contraction are in general proportional to the fractional difference between the density of the inhomogeneity and that of the mean flow times a typical mean flow pressure level, and are due principally to the fluctuation in thrust accompanying the passage of the inhomogeneity through the region of variable pressure gradient. The pressure waves generated at a nozzle orifice and radiated into free space are O(M0) smaller, where M0 is a mean flow Mach number based on the speed of sound in the jet.
This paper describes the stabilization of compressor surge by an active method. It is known that surge follows when small disturbances grow in an unstable compression system, and that small growth can be modelled through a linear stability analysis. An active element is here introduced to counter any tendency to instability and the control law governing the active stabilizer is determined from linear theory. We follow precisely the suggestion put forward by Epstein et al. (1986) and verify that their theory conforms to practice. The theory is verified in an experiment on a compression system whose plenum volume is controlled. Suppression of the flow instability was achieved by switching on the controller and the compressor was made to operate stably on a part of its characteristic beyond the nature stall line. Furthermore the controlled compressor is much more resilient to external disturbances than is the natural case. The controller is even effective on deep surge – a feature of great interest but hardly predictable from the Epstein et al. initiative for this kind of study.
In this paper we assess the importance as a noise source of the well-ordered large-scale structure of a jet. We propose two simple models of the structure: the first emphasizes those features in common with waves that initially grow on an unstable shear layer but eventually saturate and decay, while the second regards the abrupt pairing of eddies as the most significant event in the jet's development. Our models demonstrate the possibility that forcing at one frequency could increase the broad-band noise of a jet, though, for jets with supersonic eddy convection velocities, the sound propagating in the direction of the Mach angle retains the spectrum of the excitation field. These features are consistent with the available experimental data, and strongly support the view that the large-scale structure of jet turbulence provides the dominant contribution to jet noise.
This paper re-examines the theoretical arguments that indicate the structure of the pressure field induced on a flat surface by boundary-layer turbulence at low Mach number. The long-wave elements are shown to be dictated by the acoustics of the flow, and the limit of the acoustic range is the coincidence condition of grazing waves where the spectrum is singular and proportional to the logarithm of the flow scale. The surface spectrum is shown to be proportional to the square of frequency at low-enough frequency and to the square of wavenumber at those low wavenumbers with subsonic phase speed.The similarity model successfully used by Corcos for the main convective elements of the field is used in this paper to model the turbulent sources of pressure, not the pressure itself, so that a Corcos-like description of the pressure spectrum is derived that is consistent with constraints imposed by the governing equations. This results in a fairly compact specification of the pressure spectrum with yet-undetermined constants, which must be derived from experiment. Despite an extensive search of published data on the pressure field, it is concluded that existing information is an inadequate basis for setting those constants and that new free field experiments are needed. Boundary layers formed on gliders or buoyant underwater bodies offer the most promising source of such data.The paper concludes with a study of how large flush-mounted transducers discriminate against the local flow noise field and i t is shown that they do so at a rate of 9 decibels per doubling of transducer diameter. This different conclusion from Corcos’ correct 6 decibel rate for small transducers is entirely due to the low- wavenumber constraints on the spectrum, which are misrepresented in the simple similarity model. This result, which conforms with the constraints imposed by the weak compressibility of the fluid, is the same as that later suggested by Corcos for transducers that are large on the boundary-layer scale.
Weis-Fogh discovered a remarkable new principle of aerodynamic lift. Hovering wasps exploit the principle and fly with an aerodynamic performance superior in some respects to anything previously known. In this paper we address the question of whether the Weis-Fogh effect can be exploited in turbomachinery. We think the answer is yes.Normal turbomachinery design is based on the analysis of isolated cascades of blades with steady entry and exit flows. The interactions between adjacent cascades and nonuniformities of the flow are usually regarded as problems which have to be minimized. Unsteadiness gives rise to noise. In this paper we take the opposite view and examine a novel type of turbomachinery stage that depends on the interaction between rotor and stator for its normal operation. The stage exploits the Weis-Fogh principle and has the unusual property that when started from rest it generates a pressure rise without shedding any vorticity into the fluid. We argue that there may be a performance advantage for stages of this new type.Experiments were done to check the validity of the theoretical model and these are described. The results seem to show that under certain circumstances a strong rotor-stator interaction can result in an improved stage performance, and we suggest that this improvement may be due to the Weis-Fogh effect.
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