Background: Harvestmen are a good taxon for biogeographic studies due to their low vagility and their dependence on environmental conditions which make most of them live in humid and shaded habitats. Current knowledge of the geographical distribution of Uruguayan opiliofauna suggests that no evident zoogeographic areas are present, mainly because of the apparent uniformity of the landscape of this country. Recent biogeographic studies indicate that Uruguay represents a biogeographical crossroad between three South American provinces, and the aim of this study is focused on determining if this fact is reflected in the distribution of the Uruguayan opiliofauna. To test this presumption, we used the species distribution model methodology. Distribution data about four harvestmen species from Uruguay and neighboring countries were analyzed. We used the maximum entropy principle to perform a distribution model for each species. Results: We recognized Acanthopachylus aculeatus and Pachyloides thorellii as two Pampasic representatives of the Uruguayan opiliofauna. The other species studied, Discocyrtus prospicuus and Metalibitia paraguayensis, reflect Mesopotamian and Paranaense influences in the Uruguayan territory. Isothermality was the climatic variable with the best contribution in the models of the four species, reflecting constrained latitudinal ranges. Conclusions: Results of the present study suggest that two roughly different opiliological areas for Uruguay can be recognized, based on climatic variables.Fil: Simó, Miguel. Universidad de la Republica; Uruguay. Museo Nacional de Historia Natural Nacional; UruguayFil: Guerrero, José Carlos. Universidad de la Republica; UruguayFil: Giuliani, Leandro. Universidad de la Republica; UruguayFil: Castellano, Ismael. Universidad de la Republica; UruguayFil: Acosta, Luis Eduardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas. Centro Cientifico Tecnologico Cordoba. Instituto de Diversidad y Ecologia Animal; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Cordoba. Facultad de Cs.exactas Fisicas y Naturales. Catedra de Diversidad Animal I; Argentin
ABSTRACT. Phoneutria bahiensis Simó & Brescovit, 2001 is a large ctenid spider inhabiting the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. Considering that it is probably endemic, this species was included in the Brazilian red book of threatened species. Here, we predict the distribution range of P. bahiensis using 19 bioclimatic variables in the model design. The most septentrional record for this spider was indicated for northern Bahia. The model predicts that the distribution range covers the Atlantic Forest from the state of Paraíba to Rio de Janeiro, with the best suitable area in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Bahia. The bioclimatic variable with the best contribution to the model was precipitation in the driest quarter. Based on collected data, the species inhabits Ombrophilous Forests and Restinga vegetation, two ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest biome. In the best-predicted area of distribution, eleven Conservation Units were included. This information could be considered for future conservation plans of this species.
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