Sporotrichosis is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Brazil, and is caused by Sporothrix schenckii and allied species. Sporothrix propagules present on soil and plant debris may be traumatically inoculated into the cutaneous/ subcutaneous tissues of the warm-blooded host. An alternative route involves direct animal-animal and animal-human transmissions through deep scratches and bites of diseased cats. Sporotrichosis is much more common than previously appreciated with several cases emerging over the years especially in South and Southeast Brazil. We conducted an epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas of feline sporotrichosis in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Over the last 5-year period the number of feline sporotrichosis in Rio Grande increased from 0.75 new cases per month in 2010 to 3.33 cases per month in 2014. The wide geographic distribution of diagnosed cases highlights the dynamics of Sporothrix transmission across urban areas with high population density. Molecular identification down to species level by PCR-RFLP of cat-transmitted Sporothrix revealed the emergence of the clonal offshoot S. brasiliensis during feline outbreaks; this scenario is similar to the epidemics taking place in the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Controlling and preventing sporotrichosis outbreaks are essential steps to managing the disease among humans and animals.
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis, which affects mainly small animals, and is considered an important public health disease. This paper describes the epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of 103 clinical cases of sporotrichosis diagnosed over a 10-year period in southern Brazil. The 92 cats and 11 dogs from eight municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State developed especially the disseminated cutaneous and fixed cutaneous forms of the disease. Respiratory signs such as sneezing, serous nasal discharge and dyspnea were found in about 57% of the animals. The detection of Sporothrix schenckii in different clinical samples showed highest isolation in testicles (46.6%), oral cavity (45.2%) and conjunctival mucosa (38.1%). A differentiated histological pattern was found between the fixed cutaneous and disseminated cutaneous (DC) manifestations of the disease; well-organized granulomas of nodular distribution and various fungal structures prevailed in the DC form in cats. Melanin detection in S. schenckii cells by the Fontana-Masson technique was positive in 45.4% of the samples. The study revealed that the State of Rio Grande do Sul is an endemic sporotrichosis area and demonstrated the possibility of involvement of other pathways in the infection and spread of the disease. In addition, it emphasized the importance of laboratory tests for mycosis confirmation, especially in dogs that develop clinical manifestations without the presence of cutaneous lesions.
Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is the second highest state with respect to sporotrichosis incidence in Brazil, with most cases occurring in the southern region. Given the importance of epidemiologic monitoring in hyperendemic areas, this study evaluated the spatial, geographical and annual sporotrichosis incidence over a period of 7 years in the southern region of RS, as well as the disease evolution over the last two decades. Data were collected from the Mycology Laboratory of the Federal University of Rio Grande (FAMED-FURG) and from the Centre for Zoonosis Control (CZC) of the Prefeitura Municipal of Pelotas city. All feline cases of sporotrichosis diagnosed between 2010 and 2016 were included and analysed. In addition, cases of human and canine sporotrichosis were accounted for. Over the 7-year period (2010-2016), 372 feline, 34 canine and 83 human cases of sporotrichosis were diagnosed, being the mean number of cases/year 18.33 in the first 3 years of the study and 116.33 in the last 3 years. Cases were distributed among 34 and 28 neighbourhoods in Rio Grande and Pelotas city, respectively. Socioeconomic features reinforced the result that the disease is already spreading across a major part of the southern region. In addition, the study demonstrated the intensification and expansion of the high endemicity areas. Therefore, given that the number of feline sporotrichosis cases in southern RS reached alarming proportions, we suggested that this region will promptly face an epidemic of sporotrichosis if no preventive or control measures are undertaken.
Clinical cases of feline sporotrichosis, originating in the Pelotas region and diagnosed at the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases (UFPel), were studied in the period from 2002 to 2006. The animals were evaluated according to the clinical forms of the mycosis, time of lesion appearance, severity of the clinical diagnosis and evolution of cutaneous lesions throughout the treatment period. Mycological analyses, carried out through direct examination, cultivation of tissue samples and exudates of feline lesions all confirmed the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in the 15 animals under study. The cutaneous dissemination form was observed in 10 animals, of which three showed prostration, anorexia and dehydration. The zoonosis occurred in 20% of case studies, and the pet owners and one attendant at a veterinary clinic were infected, developing the fixed and disseminated cutaneous forms. The treatment of mycosis was carried out with itraconazole, 10 mg kg(-1), once a day, on 12 animals. The cure of the clinical symptoms was observed on 50% of the felines. This study demonstrates a good clinical response of felines with sporotrichosis, when they were treated itraconazole and calls the attention for the incidence of human sporotrichosis on people related to the veterinary activity as well as for pet owners.
Zoonotic sporotrichosis has undergone a geographical expansion in Brazil in the last decade. Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is the second state of the country in which a number of feline sporotrichosis cases have been described. Since cats are the main zoonotic source of infection, this study aimed to describe 100 cases of human sporotrichosis occurring in the last 5 years in the southern region of RS, Brazil. In addition, we aimed to illustrate the zoonotic importance of the disease, describing four cases in the same family due to transmission by their cat. This great number of human cases in a short period of evaluation highlights the severity of sporotrichosis as a public health problem in the region, suggesting that a possible outbreak is occurring that requires immediate public intervention actions to weaken its impact.
Neste trabalho foram avaliadas a atividade antifúngica e composição química do óleo essencial de Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim). O óleo essencial foi obtido, através da hidrodestilação, das partes aéreas da planta, o qual foi analisado por cromatografia gasosa com detectores de ionização em chama (GC/FID) e espectrometria de massas (GC/MS). Esse óleo foi testado em isolados de C. albicans da mucosa vaginal de fêmeas caninas, casos clínicos de candidíase em animais cepas padrões e espécies não-albicans, usando a técnica de microdiluição em caldo (CLSI-M27A2). A análise cromatográfica do óleo permitiu identificar como principais compostos cânfora, verbenona e 1,8-cineol. Os valores de CIM do óleo para os isolados padrões de C. albicans variaram entre 1,25 e 2,5 µL mL-1 e de 2,5 a 5,0 µL mL-1 para CFM, enquanto que para os isolados não-albicans observou-se CIM entre 1,25 e 5,0 µL mL-1 e CFM de 2,5 a 10,0 µL mL-1. C. albicans isolada de animais apresentou valores de 2,5 a >10,0 µL mL-1 para CIM e de 5,0 a >10,0 µL mL-1 para CFM. Os resultados demonstraram atividade fungicida e fungistática do óleo essencial de alecrim em isolados de Candida spp. provenientes de animais.
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