Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) have the potential to remove much of the liquid water in climatically important mid- to high-latitude shallow supercooled clouds, markedly reducing their albedo. The INP sources at these latitudes are very poorly defined, but it is known that there are substantial dust sources across the high latitudes, such as Iceland. Here, we show that Icelandic dust emissions are sporadically an important source of INPs at mid to high latitudes by combining ice-nucleating active site density measurements of aircraft-collected Icelandic dust samples with a global aerosol model. Because Iceland is only one of many high-latitude dust sources, we anticipate that the combined effect of all these sources may strongly contribute to the INP population in the mid- and high-latitude northern hemisphere. This is important because these emissions are directly relevant for the cloud-phase climate feedback and because high-latitude dust emissions are expected to increase in a warmer climate.
A software‐guided, continuous reaction calorimeter based on thermoelectric modules for direct heat flux measurements is presented. Sensors and actuators of the calorimeter's setup are implemented within a lab automation system, which enables the automated calibration of the heat flux sensors and investigations of chemical reactions through sequential function charts. Functionality of the calibration is shown by heat transfer experiments. Additionally, the calorimeter's performance is demonstrated by good agreement of conducted neutralization experiments with literature data.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Biocatalysis offers a broad spectrum of possible ecological and economic advantages over conventional chemical catalysis processes, e.g., lower energy consumption and high enantio selectivity. The focus of this work is on gas-liquid reactions. These are of great importance in the chemical and biochemical industry and subject of current research since they are often limited by mass transfer or show low selectivity. Different suitable biocatalytically gas-liquid reaction systems were tested in capillary reactor designs in order to obtain information about the interaction between reaction and fluid mechanics. Furthermore, an optical measuring method was established. The experiments were performed in batch mode in a glass beaker with a flow cuvette for UV/Vis measurement of product concentration.
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