The AICD (amyloid precursor protein [APP] intracellular domain) and C31, the caspase-cleaved C-terminal fragment of APP, have been found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the C-terminal fragments of APP (AICD [C57, C59] and C31) exert neurotoxicity on differentiated PC 12 cells and rat primary cortical neurons by inducing the expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, forming a ternary complex with Fe65 and CP2/LSF/LBP1 in the nucleus, whereas deletion mutants and a point mutant with Y682G of the YENPTY domain, a Fe65 binding domain, do not. Moreover, expression of APP770 and Swedish mutant form of APP increased the levels of C-terminal fragments of APP (APP-CTs) in neuronal cells and also induced the up-regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta at both the mRNA and the protein levels. In addition, we show that CP2/LSF/LBP1 binding site (nt +0 to approximately +10) in human glycogen synthase kinase 3beta promoter region is essential for the induction of the gene transcription by APP-CTs. The neurotoxicities induced by APP-CTs (AICD and C31) were accompanied by an increase in the active form of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, and by the induction of tau phosphorylation and a reduction in nuclear beta-catenin levels, and led to apoptosis.
Minocycline is a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic that effectively crosses the blood-brain barrier. Minocycline has been reported to have significant neuroprotective effects in models of cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. In this study, we demonstrate that minocycline has neuroprotective effects in in vitro and in vivo Alzheimer's disease models. Minocycline was found to attenuate the increases in the phosphorylation of double-stranded RNAdependent serine/threonine protein kinase, eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 a and caspase 12 activation induced by amyloid b peptide 1-42 treatment in NGF-differentiated PC 12 cells. In addition, increases in the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 a were attenuated by administration of minocycline in Tg2576 mice, which harbor mutated human APP695 gene including the Swedish double mutation and amyloid b peptide 1-42 -infused rats. We found that minocycline administration attenuated deficits in learning and memory in amyloid b peptide 1-42 -infused rats. Increased phosphorylated state of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 a is observed in Alzheimer's disease patients' brains and may result in impairment of cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease patients by decreasing the efficacy of de novo protein synthesis required for synaptic plasticity. On the basis of these results, minocycline may prove to be a good candidate as an effective therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease.
Alpha-synuclein (alpha-SN) is a ubiquitous protein that is especially abundant in the brain and has been postulated to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neuronal functions of alpha-SN and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying neuronal loss. Here, we show that alpha-SN plays dual roles of neuroprotection and neurotoxicity depending on its concentration or level of expression. At nanomolar concentrations, a-SN protected neurons against serum deprivation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity through the PI3/Akt signaling pathway, and its protective effect was increased by Bcl-2 overexpression. Conversely, at both low micromolar and overexpressed levels in the cell, alpha-SN resulted in cytotoxicity. This might be related to decreased Bcl-xL expression and increased bax expression, which is subsequently followed by cytochrome c release and caspase activation and also by microglia-mediated inflammatory responses via the NFkappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.
Although chronic stress is known to be linked with memory and other neurological disorders, little is known about the relationship between chronic stress and the onset or development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term stress on the onset and severity of cognitive deficits and pathological changes in APPV717I-CT100 mice overexpressing human APP-CT100 containing the London mutation (V717I) after exposure to immobilization stress. We found that chronic immobilization stress accelerated cognitive impairments, as accessed by the Passive avoidance and the Social Transfer of Food Preference (STFP) tests. Moreover, the numbers and densities of vascular and extracellular deposits containing amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) and carboxyl-terminal fragments of amyloid precursor protein (APP-CTFs), which are pathologic markers of AD, were significantly elevated in stressed animals, especially in the hippocampus. Moreover, stressed animals, also showed highly elevated levels of neurodegeneration and tau phosphorylation and increased intraneuronal Abeta and APP-CTFs immunoreactivities in the hippocampus and in the entorhinal and piriform cortex. This study provides the first evidence that chronic stress accelerates the onset and severity of cognitive deficits and that these are highly correlated with pathological changes, which thus indicates that chronic stress may be an important contributor to the onset and development of AD.
Neuroligin-1 is a potent trigger for the de novo formation of synaptic connections, and it has recently been suggested that it is required for the maturation of functionally competent excitatory synapses. Despite evidence for the role of neuroligin-1 in specifying excitatory synapses, the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences that neuroligin-1 may have at mature synapses of normal adult animals remain unknown. By silencing endogenous neuroligin-1 acutely in the amygdala of live behaving animals, we have found that neuroligin-1 is required for the storage of associative fear memory. Subsequent cellular physiological studies showed that suppression of neuroligin-1 reduces NMDA receptor-mediated currents and prevents the expression of long-term potentiation without affecting basal synaptic connectivity at the thalamo-amygdala pathway. These results indicate that persistent expression of neuroligin-1 is required for the maintenance of NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission, which enables normal development of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory in the amygdala of adult animals.synaptic plasticity ͉ neuroligin ͉ autism S everal studies have found that synaptically localized cell adhesion molecules not only trigger synapse formation but also play a major role in regulating both basal synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity (1, 2). Among them, neurexins and neuroligins (NLs), which undergo a heterophilic interaction with each other, have emerged as important organizers of de novo synapse formation (3). Moreover, modifying the interaction of neuroligin-1 and PSD-95 alters the balance of neuronal excitation and inhibition required for normal brain function (4). The indispensable role of neuroligins for proper neuronal connectivity is further supported by the genetic linkage of neuroligin mutations with autism, a disease that is thought to be a disorder in social cognition that critically involves the amygdala (5, 6).Because neuroligins are present both during development and throughout adulthood (7,8), it is likely that neuroligins play roles other than that of an inducer of synaptogenesis in the adult brain. Indeed, a recent study of knockout (KO) mice deficient in neuroligin-1 demonstrated that neuroligin-1 regulates excitatory synaptic responses (9). Although neuroligin-1 has been suggested to be essential for maintaining normal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor-mediated currents (9), the underlying mechanism and its physiological consequence remain to be identified. Furthermore, because the regulation of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is critical for long-term synaptic modification (10), alterations of NMDAR-dependent currents regulated by neuroligin-1 are likely to have effects on synaptic plasticity and long-term memory in adult animals.To address the functional role of neuroligin-1 at existing mature synapses, we used virus-mediated RNA interference to deplete endogenous neuroligin-1 in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) of adult animals. We investigated the actions...
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) has eight potential phosphorylation sites in its cytoplasmic domain.Recently, it has demonstrated that the constitutive phosphorylation of APP at T668 (APP695 isoform numbering) was observed specifically in the brain. Neuron-specific phosphorylation of APP at T668 is thought to be important for neuronal functions of APP, although its exact physiological significance remains to be clarified. In this study, we show that the phosphorylation of the APP intracellular domain (AICD) at T668 is essential for its binding to Fe65 and its nuclear translocation and affects the resultant neurotoxicity, possibly mediated through the induction of glycogen synthase kinase 3␤ and tau phosphorylation by enhancing the formation of a ternary complex with Fe65 and CP2 transcription factor. Taken together, these results suggest that the phosphorylation of AICD at T668 contributes to the neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by regulating its translocation into the nucleus and then affects neurodegeneration; therefore, the specific inhibitor of T668 phosphorylation might be the target of AD therapy.Amyloid beta peptide (A␤) generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP) is the main component of neuritic plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and its aggregation is hypothesized to be central to the pathogenesis of AD (28). APP, which is a type I transmembrane protein, is cleaved consecutively, first at the extracellular juxtamembrane region by ␣-or ␤-secretase and then at the intramembrane region by ␥-secretase. Following the first cleavage, a soluble APP fragment (sAPP␣ or sAPP␤) is secreted, and then, following the second cleavage, p3 or A␤ peptides and the AICD (APP intracellular domain) are generated, together with release of the cytoplasmic fragment into the cytoplasm (7,29,31,37,39).APP contains eight potential phosphorylation sites within its cytoplasmic domain (21). Seven of these potential phosphorylation sites were recently shown to be phosphorylated in AD brains, i.e., Y653, S655, T668, S675, Y682, T686, and Y687 (APP695 isoform numbering) (21). The constitutive phosphorylation of APP at T668 is observed specifically in the brain (14).
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers