The current paper provides background to the development of the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-being and then summarises findings derived from its use with other measures of health and personality. There is substantial evidence for religiosity/spirituality being positively related to a variety of indicators of mental health, including subjective well-being and personality dimensions. Furthermore, religiosity/spirituality can play an important role in the process of recovering from mental illness as well as providing a protective function against addictive or suicidal behaviours. However, further research is needed to examine the mechanisms through which religiosity/spirituality have an impact on health-related conditions.
Substance use disorders (SUD) have been shown to be linked to various neuronal and behavioral impairments. In this study, we investigate whether there is a connection between the integrity of white matter (WM) and attachment styles as well as different affective states including spirituality in a group of patients diagnosed for poly-drug use disorder (PUD) in comparison to non-clinical controls. A total sample of 59 right-handed men, comprising the groups of patients with PUD (n = 19), recreational drug-using individuals (RUC; n = 20) as well as non-drug using controls were recruited (NUC; n = 20). For the behavioral assessment, we applied the Adult Attachment-Scale, the Affective Neuroscience Personality-Scale (short version) and the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being. Diffusion Tensor Imaging was used to investigate differences in WM neural connectivity. Analyses revealed decreased Fractional Anisotropy and decreased Mean Diffusivity in PUD patients as compared to RUC and NUC. No differences were found between RUC and NUC. Additional ROI analyses suggested that WM impairment in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and the superior corona radiata (SCR) was linked to more insecure attachment as well as to more negative affectivity. No substantial correlation was observed with spirituality. These findings are mainly limited by the cross-sectional design of the study. However, our preliminary results support the idea of addiction as an attachment disorder, both at neuronal and behavioral levels. Further research might be focused on the changes of insecure attachment patterns in SUD treatment and their correlation with changes in the brain.
The relationship between substance use disorders (SUD) and brain deficits has been studied extensively. However, there is still a lack of research focusing on the structural neural connectivity in long-term polydrug use disorder (PUD). Since a deficiency in white matter integrity has been reported as being related to various parameters of increased psychopathology, it might be considered an aggravating factor in the treatment of SUD. In this study we compared two groups of PUD inpatients (abstinent: n = 18, in maintenance treatment: n = 15) to healthy controls (n = 16) with respect to neural connectivity in white matter, and their relation to behavioral parameters of personality factors/organization and attachment styles. Diffusion Tensor Imaging was used to investigate white matter structure. Compared with healthy controls, the PUD patients showed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) mainly in the superior fasciculus longitudinalis and the superior corona radiata. These findings suggest diminished neural connectivity as a result of myelin pathology in PUD patients. In line with our assumptions, we observed FA in the biggest cluster as negatively correlated with anxious attachment (r = 0.36, p < 0.05), personality dysfunctioning (r = -0.41; p < 0.01) as well positively correlated with personality factors Openness (r = 0.34; p < 0.05) and Agreeableness (r = 0.28; p < 0.05). Correspondingly these findings were inversely mirrored by RD. Further research employing enhanced samples and addressing longitudinally neuronal plastic effects of SUD treatment in relation to changes in personality and attachment is recommended.
Background: Previous research has linked insecure attachment styles and borderline personality organization to substance use disorder (SUD). However, it still remains unclear whether those impairments apply to different kinds of SUDs to the same extent. Therefore, in this study we sought to investigate potential differences regarding attachment deficits and borderline personality organization in two different SUD inpatient groups and furthermore in comparison to healthy controls. Sampling and Methods: A total of 66 (24 female) inpatients diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD), 57 (10 female) inpatients diagnosed with polydrug use disorder (PUD), and 114 (51 female) healthy controls completed the Borderline Personality Inventory and the Attachment Style Questionnaire. Results: Compared to healthy controls, AUD and PUD inpatients showed significant deficits in all attachment parameters (p < 0.01) as well as a significantly increased amount of borderline personality organization (p < 0.01). No differences between AUD and PUD inpatients were observed (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Our results indicate that the drug(s) of choice cannot be regarded as an indicator for the extent of attachment deficits or personality pathology. These initial findings are mainly limited by the rather small sample size as well as just a single point of measurement. Future research might also consider further covariates such as comorbidity or psychotropic medication.
We investigated the relationship between creativity, personality, latent inhibition (LI), and psychopathology. For this purpose, a sample of actors, 2 clinical samples (alcohol and polydrug dependents), and a group of university students were compared with respect to psychometrically determined creativity, personality, and LI. The results suggest that actors and polydrug dependents can be characterized by (a) high scores in the personality dimension psychoticism, (b) high originality during creative idea generation, and (c) decreased LI as compared with the other groups. Correlational analyses moreover revealed signiftcant associations between LI, originality, and psychoticism. According to our fmdings, creative people and people suffering from mental disorders appear to share some common personality and cognitive traits.
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