Interactions between cell wall polymers are critical for establishing cell wall integrity and cell-cell adhesion. Here, we exploit the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat mucilage system to examine cell wall polymer interactions. On hydration, seeds release an adherent mucilage layer strongly attached to the seed in addition to a nonadherent layer that can be removed by gentle agitation. Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) is the primary component of adherent mucilage, with homogalacturonan, cellulose, and xyloglucan constituting minor components. Adherent mucilage contains rays composed of cellulose and pectin that extend above the center of each epidermal cell. CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5 (CESA5) and the arabinogalactan protein SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE5 (SOS5) are required for mucilage adherence through unknown mechanisms. SOS5 has been suggested to mediate adherence by influencing cellulose biosynthesis. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between SOS5 and CESA5. cesa5-1 seeds show reduced cellulose, RG I, and ray size in adherent mucilage. In contrast, sos5-2 seeds have wild-type levels of cellulose but completely lack adherent RG I and rays. Thus, relative to each other, cesa5-1 has a greater effect on cellulose, whereas sos5-2 mainly affects pectin. The double mutant cesa5-1 sos5-2 has a much more severe loss of mucilage adherence, suggesting that SOS5 and CESA5 function independently. Doublemutant analyses with mutations in MUCILAGE MODIFIED2 and FLYING SAUCER1 that reduce mucilage release through pectin modification suggest that only SOS5 influences pectin-mediated adherence. Together, these findings suggest that SOS5 mediates adherence through pectins and does so independently of but in concert with cellulose synthesized by CESA5.
SummaryFasciclin‐like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs) are involved in numerous important functions in plants but the relevance of their complex structure to physiological function and cellular fate is unresolved. Using a fully functional fluorescent version of Arabidopsis thaliana FLA4 we show that this protein is localized at the plasma membrane as well as in endosomes and soluble in the apoplast. FLA4 is likely to be GPI‐anchored, is highly N‐glycosylated and carries two O‐glycan epitopes previously associated with arabinogalactan proteins. The activity of FLA4 was resistant against deletion of the amino‐proximal fasciclin 1 domain and was unaffected by removal of the GPI‐modification signal, a highly conserved N‐glycan or the deletion of predicted O‐glycosylation sites. Nonetheless these structural changes dramatically decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER)‐exit and plasma membrane localization of FLA4, with N‐glycosylation acting at the level of ER‐exit and O‐glycosylation influencing post‐secretory fate. We show that FLA4 acts predominantly by molecular interactions involving its carboxy‐proximal fasciclin 1 domain and that its amino‐proximal fasciclin 1 domain is required for stabilization of plasma membrane localization. FLA4 functions as a soluble glycoprotein via its carboxy‐proximal Fas1 domain and its normal cellular trafficking depends on N‐ and O‐glycosylation.
Background and AimsThe putative FASCICLIN-LIKE ARABINOGALACTAN PROTEIN 4 (At-FLA4) locus of Arabidopsis thaliana has previously been shown to be required for the normal growth of wild-type roots in response to moderately elevated salinity. However, the genetic and physiological pathway that connects At-FLA4 and normal root growth remains to be elucidated.MethodsThe radial swelling phenotype of At-fla4 was modulated with growth regulators and their inhibitors. The relationship of At-FLA4 to abscisic acid (ABA) signalling was analysed by probing marker gene expression and the observation of the At-fla4 phenotype in combination with ABA signalling mutants.Key ResultsApplication of ABA suppresses the non-redundant role of At-FLA4 in the salt response. At-FLA4 positively regulates the response to low ABA concentration in roots and is required for the normal expression of ABA- and abiotic stress-induced genes. The At-fla4 phenotype is enhanced in the At-abi4 background, while two genetic suppressors of ABA-induced gene expression are required for salt oversensitivity of At-fla4. Salt oversensitivity in At-fla4 is suppressed by the CYP707A inhibitor abscinazole E2B, and salt oversensitivity in At-fla4 roots is phenocopied by chemical inhibition of ABA biosynthesis.ConclusionsThe predicted lipid-anchored glycoprotein At-FLA4 positively regulates cell wall biosynthesis and root growth by modulating ABA signalling.
Arabidopsis EARLI-type hybrid proline-rich proteins (HyPRPs) consist of a putative N-terminal secretion signal, a proline-rich domain (PRD), and a characteristic eight-cysteine-motif (8-CM). They have been implicated in biotic and abiotic stress responses. AZI1 is required for systemic acquired resistance and it has recently been identified as a target of the stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3. AZI1 gel migration properties strongly indicate AZI1 to undergo major post-translational modifications. These occur in a stress-independent manner and are unrelated to phosphorylation by MAPKs. As revealed by transient expression of AZI1 in Nicotiana benthamiana and Tropaeolum majus, the Arabidopsis protein is similarly modified in heterologous plant species. Proline-rich regions, resembling arabinogalactan proteins point to a possible proline hydroxylation and subsequent O-glycosylation of AZI1. Consistently, inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase reduces its apparent protein size. AZI1 secretion was examined using Arabidopsis protoplasts and seedling exudates. Employing Agrobacterium-mediated leaf infiltration of N. benthamiana, we attempted to assess long-distance movement of AZI1. In summary, the data point to AZI1 being a partially secreted protein and a likely new member of the group of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Its dual location suggests AZI1 to exert both intra- and extracellular functions.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers