The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies.
Ultrathin two-dimensional nanosheets of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are fundamentally and technologically intriguing. In contrast to the graphene sheet, they are chemically versatile. Mono- or few-layered TMDs - obtained either through exfoliation of bulk materials or bottom-up syntheses - are direct-gap semiconductors whose bandgap energy, as well as carrier type (n- or p-type), varies between compounds depending on their composition, structure and dimensionality. In this Review, we describe how the tunable electronic structure of TMDs makes them attractive for a variety of applications. They have been investigated as chemically active electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution and hydrosulfurization, as well as electrically active materials in opto-electronics. Their morphologies and properties are also useful for energy storage applications such as electrodes for Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors.
A new phototransistor based on the mechanically exfoliated single-layer MoS(2) nanosheet is fabricated, and its light-induced electric properties are investigated in detail. Photocurrent generated from the phototransistor is solely determined by the illuminated optical power at a constant drain or gate voltage. The switching behavior of photocurrent generation and annihilation can be completely finished within ca. 50 ms, and it shows good stability. Especially, the single-layer MoS(2) phototransistor exhibits a better photoresponsivity as compared with the graphene-based device. The unique characteristics of incident-light control, prompt photoswitching, and good photoresponsivity from the MoS(2) phototransistor pave an avenue to develop the single-layer semiconducting materials for multifunctional optoelectronic device applications in the future.
Since the discovery of mechanically exfoliated graphene in 2004, research on ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials has grown exponentially in the fields of condensed matter physics, material science, chemistry, and nanotechnology. Highlighting their compelling physical, chemical, electronic, and optical properties, as well as their various potential applications, in this Review, we summarize the state-of-art progress on the ultrathin 2D nanomaterials with a particular emphasis on their recent advances. First, we introduce the unique advances on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials, followed by the description of their composition and crystal structures. The assortments of their synthetic methods are then summarized, including insights on their advantages and limitations, alongside some recommendations on suitable characterization techniques. We also discuss in detail the utilization of these ultrathin 2D nanomaterials for wide ranges of potential applications among the electronics/optoelectronics, electrocatalysis, batteries, supercapacitors, solar cells, photocatalysis, and sensing platforms. Finally, the challenges and outlooks in this promising field are featured on the basis of its current development.
Graphene has attracted tremendous research interest in recent years, owing to its exceptional properties. The scaled-up and reliable production of graphene derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), offers a wide range of possibilities to synthesize graphene-based functional materials for various applications. This critical review presents and discusses the current development of graphene-based composites. After introduction of the synthesis methods for graphene and its derivatives as well as their properties, we focus on the description of various methods to synthesize graphene-based composites, especially those with functional polymers and inorganic nanostructures. Particular emphasis is placed on strategies for the optimization of composite properties. Lastly, the advantages of graphene-based composites in applications such as the Li-ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, photovoltaic devices, photocatalysis, as well as Raman enhancement are described (279 references).
Properly piled up: Single‐layer 2D semiconducting nanomaterials of MoS2, WS2, TiS2, TaS2, ZrS2, and graphene were fabricated through an electrochemical lithiation process (see picture). The production of single‐layer MoS2 was achieved in 92 % yield. A single‐layer MoS2‐based thin‐film transistor was fabricated, which was used for sensing NO at a detection limit of 190 ppt.
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