Carbon nanomaterials, predominantly carbon nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene nanoplates, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, possess superior chemical, physical and mechanical properties. They have been successfully introduced into ordinary Portland cement to give enhancements in terms of mechanical properties, durability and electrical/thermal conductivity, and to modify the functional properties, converting conventional cement-based materials into stronger, smarter and more durable composites. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the properties of carbon nanomaterials, current developments and novel techniques in carbon nanomaterials enhanced cement-based composites (CN-CBCs). Further study of the applications of CN-CBCs at industrial scale is also discussed.
Uneven settlement of high-speed railway subgrade leads to the irregularity of high-speed railway line, which seriously affects high-speed train operation. The skylight point of high-speed railway operation is short and the maintenance time is limited. Therefore, how to quickly lift and repair the ballastless track slab in the subsidence section is an urgent problem to be solved in the maintenance of high-speed railways. The two-component non-aqueous reactive polymer material has the advantages of strong expansive force, fast reaction speed, and wide application range, which is extremely suitable for the repair of high-speed railway track slab subsidence and lifting. In this study, the expansion force characteristics of different density polymer materials and the stress-deformation curves at corresponding density are tested in laboratory to propose the mechanical parameters of polymer. Then, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of high-speed railway train ballastless-track subgrade is established based on ABAQUS. The mechanical characteristics of CRTS III ballastless track under different repair materials, different elevation, and different density of polymer grouting materials are analyzed. The results show that, under the dynamic load of the train, the stress value of polymer repairing material is less than that of cement slurry, presenting a compressive stress state, which is similar to that of the complete subgrade surface. In addition, within a certain thickness range, increasing the thickness of polymer is beneficial to reducing the difference of stress variation between polymer filling layer and complete pavement. Once beyond this range, the thickness of polymer has little effect on the force variation.
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