BackgroundUrinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections with global expansion. These infections are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC).MethodsTotally, 123 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from UTIs patients, using bacterial culture method were subjected to polymerase chain reactions for detection of various O- serogroups, some urovirulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and resistance to 13 different antibiotics.ResultsAccording to data, the distribution of O1, O2, O6, O7 and O16 serogroups were 2.43%, besides O22, O75 and O83 serogroups were 1.62%. Furthermore, the distribution of O4, O8, O15, O21 and O25 serogroups were 5.69%, 3.25%, 21.13%, 4.06% and 26.01%, respectively. Overall, the fim virulence gene had the highest (86.17%) while the usp virulence gene had the lowest distributions of virulence genes in UPEC strains isolated from UTIs patients. The vat and sen virulence genes were not detected in any UPEC strains. Totally, aadA1 (52.84%), and qnr (46.34%) were the most prevalent antibiotic resistance genes while the distribution of cat1 (15.44%), cmlA (15.44%) and dfrA1 (21.95%) were the least. Resistance to penicillin (100%) and tetracycline (73.98%) had the highest while resistance to nitrofurantoin (5.69%) and trimethoprim (16.26%) had the lowest frequencies.ConclusionsThis study indicated that the UPEC strains which harbored the high numbers of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes had the high ability to cause diseases that are resistant to most antibiotics. In the current situation, it seems that the administration of penicillin and tetracycline for the treatment of UTIs is vain.
The objectives of the current study were to detect virulence factors and determine antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus by using 360 fresh raw chicken meats, collected from 133 chicken shops in Isfahan, Iran, from January 2011 to March 2012. The Staph. aureus isolates were identified using culture and phenotypical methods. The PCR assays were developed with specific primers for the detection of different virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of Staph. aureus. The agar disk diffusion method was used for evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility of Staph. aureus isolated from chicken meat samples. In this survey, 101 out of 360 samples were positive for Staphylococcus (28.05%). In our results indicated, out of 360 samples, 82 (22.77%) were positive for Staph. aureus and, out of 82 positive samples, 96.34% had X-region, 76.92% had fibrinogen clumping factor A, 63.41% had staphylococcal coagulase virulence genes, 26.82% had IgG binding region, and the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 gene was not isolated in any sample. The methicillin was the highest (82.92%), whereas macrolides was the lowest (34.14%) antibiotic-resistant genes in Staph. aureus-positive samples. Tetracycline had the highest resistant profile (97.56%) in Staph. aureus isolates, followed by methicillin (75.6), sulfamethoxazol (31.7%), trimethoprim (31.7%), streptomycin (31.7%), gentamicin (29.26%), enrofloxacin (28.04%), ampicillin (26.82%), chloramphenicol (20.73%), and cephalothin (17.07%). Statistical analysis showed significant differences between presences of various virulence and antibiotic resistance genes in Staph. aureus isolated from chicken meat samples. It seems that inspection of chicken meat using multiplex PCR is a useful technique for detection of Staph. aureus virulence and antibiotic resistance genes.
To assess the presences of Escherichia coli, its serogroups, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance properties in ruminant's meat, a total of 820 raw meat samples were collected and then evaluated using culture, PCR and disk diffusion methods. Totally, 238 (29.02%) samples were positive for presence of Escherichia coli. All of the isolates had more than one virulence gene including Stx1, Stx2, eaeA and ehly. All investigated serogroups were found in beef and sheep and all except O145, O121 and O128 were found in goat. The O91, O113, O111, O103, O26 and O157 serogroups were found in camel. Totally, aadA1-blaSHV combination was the most predominant antibiotic resistance gene. The highest resistance of STEC strains was seen against penicillin while resistance to nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin was minimal. These findings showed that health care and meat inspection should be reconsidered in Iranian slaughterhouses and butchers.
BackgroundCalf diarrhea is a major economic concern in bovine industry all around the world. This study was carried out in order to investigate distribution of virulence genes, pathotypes, serogroups and antibiotic resistance properties of Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic calves.ResultsTotally, 76.45% of 824 diarrheic fecal samples collected from Isfahan, Chaharmahal, Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran were positive for E. coli and all of them were also positive for cnf2, hlyA, cdtIII, f17c, lt, st, stx1, eae, ehly, stx2 and cnf1 virulence genes. Chaharmahal had the highest prevalence of STEC (84.61%), while Isfahan had the lowest (71.95%). E. coli serogroups had the highest frequency in 1–7 days old calves and winter season. Distribution of ETEC, EHEC, AEEC and NTEC pathotypes among E. coli isolates were 28.41%, 5.07%, 29.52% and 3.49%, respectively. Statistical analyses were significant for presence of bacteria between various seasons and ages. All isolates had the high resistance to penicillin (100%), streptomycin (98.25%) and tetracycline (98.09%) antibiotics. The most commonly detected resistance genes were aadA1, sul1, aac-IV, CITM, and dfrA1. The most prevalent serogroup among STEC was O26.ConclusionsOur findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in diarrheic calves in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution when prescribing antibiotics.
Regard to high similarity in genotype of H. pylori isolates from saliva, stomach and stool, this study support the idea which fecal- oral is the main route of H. pylori transmission and oral cavity may serve as a reservoir for H. pylori, however, remarkable genotype diversity among stomach, saliva and stool samples showed that more than one H. pylori genotype may exist in a same patient.
The aims of the current study were to detect the virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, in animal milk and dairy products in Iran. After E. coli dentification with culture method, PCR assay were developed for detection of pathogenic genes, serotypes and antibiotic resistance genes of E. coli. Results showed that out of 719 samples, 102 (14.18%) were confirmed to be positive for E. coli and out of 102 positive samples, 17.64% were O26 and 13.72% were O157 and 1.96% were O91 and 1.96% were O145 serotypes. Totally, the prevalence of stx1 and papA genes were the highest while the prevalence of sfaS and fyuA were the lowest in the positive samples. PCR results showed that tetA, tetB were the highest (64.70%) and aac(3)-IV were the lowest (27.45%) antibiotic resistant genes in E. coli positive samples. Our study indicated that the isolated E. coli trains in these regions had a highest antibiotic resistance to tetracycline (58.82%) and the lowest to nitrofurantoin (3.92%). tetA gene and E. coli O157 serotype had highest and aac(3)-IV gene, and E. coli O145 serotype had a lowest frequency rates of antibiotics resistance genes, in the region.
Background:The most common hospital-acquired pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is a multidrug resistant bacterium causing systemic infections.Objectives:The present study was carried out in order to investigate the distribution of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from various types of hospital infections in Iran.Patients and Methods:Two-hundred and seventeen human infection specimens were collected from Baqiyatallah and Payambaran hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The clinical samples were cultured immediately and samples positive for P. aeruginosa were analyzed for the presence of antibiotic resistance and bacterial virulence genes using PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion methodology with Müeller–Hinton agar.Results:Fifty-eight out of 127 (45.66%) male infection specimens and 44 out of 90 (48.88%) female infection specimens harbored P. aeruginosa. Also, 65% (in male specimens) and 21% (in female specimens) of respiratory system infections were positive for P. aeruginosa, which was a high rate. The genes encoding exoenzyme S (67.64%) and phospholipases C (45.09%) were the most common virulence genes found among the strains. The incidences of various β-lactams encoding genes, including blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, blaCTX-M, blaDHA, and blaVEB were 94.11%, 16.66%, 15.68%, 18.62%, 21.56%, and 17.64%, respectively. The most commonly detected fluoroquinolones encoding gene was gyrA (15. 68%). High resistance levels to penicillin (100%), tetracycline (90.19%), streptomycin (64.70%), and erythromycin (43.13%) were observed too.Conclusions:Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in hospitalized patients in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution in prescribing antibiotics, especially in cases of human infections.
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