SummarySignal transduction mediated by the single yeast isozyme of protein kinase C (Pkc1p) is essential for the maintenance of cellular integrity in this model eukaryote. The past few years have seen a dramatic increase in our knowledge of the upstream regulatory factors that modulate Pkc1p activity (e.g. Tor2p, Rom1p, Rom2p, Rho1p, Slg1p, Mid2p) and of the downstream targets of the MAP kinase cascade triggered by it (e.g. Rlm1p, SBF complex). The picture that has emerged connects this pathway to a variety of other cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression (Cdc28p, Swi4p), mating (Ste20p), nutrient sensing (Ira1p), calcium homeostasis (calcineurin, Mid2p, Fks2p) and the structural dynamics of the cytoskeleton (Spa1p, Bni1p).
Morphogenesis of filamentous ascomycetes includes continuously elongating hyphae, frequently emerging lateral branches, and, under certain circumstances, symmetrically dividing hyphal tips. We identified the formin AgBni1p of the model fungus Ashbya gossypii as an essential factor in these processes. AgBni1p is an essential protein apparently lacking functional overlaps with the two additional A. gossypii formins that are nonessential. Agbni1 null mutants fail to develop hyphae and instead expand to potato-shaped giant cells, which lack actin cables and thus tip-directed transport of secretory vesicles. Consistent with the essential role in hyphal development, AgBni1p locates to tips, but not to septa. The presence of a diaphanous autoregulatory domain (DAD) indicates that the activation of AgBni1p depends on Rho-type GTPases. Deletion of this domain, which should render AgBni1p constitutively active, completely changes the branching pattern of young hyphae. New axes of polarity are no longer established subapically (lateral branching) but by symmetric divisions of hyphal tips (tip splitting). In wild-type hyphae, tip splitting is induced much later and only at much higher elongation speed. When GTP-locked Rho-type GTPases were tested, only the young hyphae with mutated AgCdc42p split at their tips, similar to the DAD deletion mutant. Two-hybrid experiments confirmed that AgBni1p interacts with GTP-bound AgCdc42p. These data suggest a pathway for transforming one axis into two new axes of polar growth, in which an increased activation of AgBni1p by a pulse of activated AgCdc42p stimulates additional actin cable formation and tip-directed vesicle transport, thus enlarging and ultimately splitting the polarity site.
Cytokinesis in yeast can be achieved by plasma membrane ingression, which is dependent on actomyosin ring constriction. Inn1 presumably couples these processes by interaction with both the plasma membrane and the temporary actomyosin ring component Hof1. In addition, an actomyosin ring independent cytokinesis pathway exists in yeast. We here identified Cyk3, a key component of the alternative pathway, as a novel interaction partner of Inn1. The carboxy-terminal proline rich part of Inn1 binds the SH3 domains of either Cyk3 or Hof1. Strains with truncated proteins lacking either of these SH3 domains do not display any severe phenotypes, but are synthetically lethal, demonstrating their crucial role in cytokinesis. Overexpression of CYK3 leads to an actomyosin ring independent recruitment of Inn1 to the bud neck, further supporting the significance of this interaction in vivo. Moreover, overexpression of CYK3 in a myo1 or an iqg1 deletion not only restores viability, but also the recruitment of Inn1 to the bud neck. We propose that Cyk3 is part of an actomyosin ring independent cytokinesis pathway, which acts as a rescue mechanism to recruit Inn1 to the bud neck.
The response to cell surface stress in yeast is mediated by a set of five plasma membrane sensors. We here address the relation of intracellular localization of the sensors Wsc1, Wsc2, and Mid2 to their turnover and signaling function. Growth competition experiments indicate that Wsc2 plays an important role in addition to Wsc1 and Mid2. The two Wsc sensors appear at the bud neck during cytokinesis and employ different routes of endocytosis, which govern their turnover. Whereas Wsc1 uses a clathrin-dependent NPFDD signal, Wsc2 relies on a specific lysine residue (K495). In end3 and doa4 endocytosis mutants, both sensors accumulate at the plasma membrane, and a hypersensitivity to cell wall-specific drugs and to treatment with zymolyase is observed. A haploid strain in which endocytosis of the two sensors is specifically blocked displays a reduced fitness in growth competition experiments. If the Mid2 sensor is mobilized by the addition of an endocytosis signal, it mimics the dynamic distribution of the Wsc sensors, but is unable to complement the specific growth defects of a wsc1 deletion. These data suggest that sensor distribution is not the major determinant for its specificity.
SummaryThe exact function and regulation of the small GTPase Rho5, a putative homolog of mammalian Rac1, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have not yet been elucidated. In a genetic screen initially designed to identify novel regulators of cell wall integrity signaling, we identified the homologs of mammalian DOCK1 (Dck1) and ELMO (Lmo1) as upstream components which regulate Rho5. Deletion mutants in any of the encoding genes (DCK1, LMO1, RHO5) showed hyperresistance to cell wall stress agents, demonstrating a function in cell wall integrity signaling. Live-cell fluorescence microscopy showed that Dck1, Lmo1 and Rho5 quickly relocate to mitochondria under oxidative stress and cell viability assays indicate a role of Dck1/ Lmo1/Rho5 signaling in triggering cell death as a response to hydrogen peroxide treatment. A regulatory role in autophagy/mitophagy is suggested by the colocalization of Rho5 with autophagic markers and the decreased mitochondrial turnover observed in dck1, lmo1 and rho5 deletion mutants. Rho5 activation may thus serve as a central hub for the integration of different signaling pathways.
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