Wound healing is a complex process that involves several biological events, and a delay in this process may cause economic and social problems for the patient. The search continues for new alternative treatments to aid healing, including the use of herbal medicines. Members of the genus Caesalpinia are used in traditional medicine to treat wounds. The related species Poincianella pluviosa (DC.) L.P. Queiroz increases the cell viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts and stimulates the proliferation of keratinocytes in vitro. The crude extract (CE) from bark of P. pluviosa was evaluated in the wound-healing process in vivo, to validate the traditional use and the in vitro activity. Standardized CE was incorporated into a gel and applied on cutaneous wounds (TCEG) and compared with the formulation without CE (Control) for 4, 7, 10, or 14 days of treatment. The effects of the CE on wound re-epithelialization; cell proliferation; permeation, using photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS); and proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were evaluated. The TCEG stimulated the migration of keratinocytes at day 4 and proliferation on the following days, with a high concentration of cells in metaphase at 7 days. Type I collagen formed more rapidly in the TCEG. PAS showed that the CE had permeated through the skin. TCEG stimulated VEGF at day 4 and SOD-2 and COX-2 at day 7. The results suggest that the CE promoted the regulation of proteins and helped to accelerate the processes involved in healing, promoting early angiogenesis. This led to an increase in the re-epithelialized surface, with significant mitotic activity. Maturation of collagen fibers was also enhanced, which may affect the resistance of the extracellular matrix. PAS indicated a correlation between the rate of diffusion and biological events during the healing process. The CE from P. pluviosa appears promising as an aid in healing.
In this work, liquid nitrogen was used for the first time in the pretreatment of plant biomasses for purposes of enzymatic saccharification. After treatment (cryocrushing), the initial rates of the enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus sawdust and rice hull were increased more than ten-fold. Cryocrushing did not modify significantly the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in both eucalyptus sawdust and rice hulls. However, substantial disorganization of the lignocellulosic materials in consequence of the pretreatment could be observed by electron microscopy. Cryocrushing was highly efficient in improving the saccharification of the holocellulose component of the plant biomasses (from 4.3% to 54.1% for eucalyptus sawdust and from 3.9% to 40.6% for rice hull). It is important to emphasize that it consists in a simple operation with low requirements of water and chemicals, no corrosion, no release of products such as soluble phenolics, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural and no waste generation.
Diabetes mellitus is a serious public health problem in which a major complication is impaired wound healing. Among the strategies developed to foster tissue repair is the use of medicinal plants. The bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens, which is popularly used as an aid in wound healing, has a documented effect on wound repair in normal rats. This study evaluated the healing action of the crude extract of S. adstringens in diabetic rats, and its chemical content. Compounds present in the crude extract were characterized by mass spectrometry. In diabetic rats (streptozotocin 35 mg/kg), two wounds made in the skin were treated daily for 4, 7, 10, and 14 days with gel containing 1 % crude extract or with base gel. Histological analyses involved the measurement of the length and thickness of the re-epithelialized surface, quantification of the number of cells in mitosis, and types I and III collagen fibers. Also, cutaneous permeation by photoacoustic spectroscopy, and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor by Western blot were assessed. The crude extract fingerprint showed masses indicating proanthocyanidins. The crude extract mainly stimulated cell migration and proliferation of keratinocytes at the beginning of the treatment in addition to stimulating the replacement of type III collagen fibers by type I collagen fibers at 10 and 14 days. The photoacoustic spectroscopy technique showed that the gel containing 1 % of crude extract permeated through the skin to the dermis, where the crude extract was found. Vascular endothelial growth factor was stimulated after 7 days of treatment with the crude extract and cyclooxygenase-2 at 4, 7, and 10 days. The crude extract of S. adstringens acted in tissue repair in wounds in diabetic rats by stimulating the production of collagen fibers at the wound site. The crude extract favored the formation of a more organized extracellular matrix and filled the entire extent of the wound, and also fostered the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor, which are essential to this process. These crude extract actions in diabetic wounds are probably due to the presence of proanthocyanidins.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.