The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additives (PA) and organic acids (OA), alone or in combination, on the performance, intestinal histomorphometry and lipid oxidation, and immune responses of broiler chickens. In this experiment, 820 one-day-old chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, with four replicates of 41 broilers each. The dietary treatments consisted of a control diet with no PA or OA (CD); CD with OA and no PA (CD+OA-PA); CD with PA and no OA (CD+PA-CD); CDwith both PA and OA (CD+PA+CD); and CD + avilamycin + monesin sodium. Broiler performance was not affected by the alternative feed additives, except from 1 to 21 days, when broilers fed the CD or CD+PA+OA diets showed higher body weight gain than those fed the CD with only OA. The broilers fed the diet containing avilamycin and monensin presented better performance. The supplementation of PA and OA increased bursalcortical area on21 and 42 days posthatch. On 21 days post-hatch, broilers fed the AGP diet presented higher ileal villus height than those fed the control diet. The pH values of the jejunum content were reduced on the OA-fed chickens. Higher villus height and crypt depth were found in the alternative additive-fed chickens on 7 days post-hatch. On 42 days post-hatch, the percentage of the bursal cortex increased in PA-fed broilers; however, there was no increase in antibody production. The PAfed chickens presented lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in the small intestine. The dietary supplementation of phytogenic additives, individually or in combination associated with organic acids, does not affect broiler live performance or intestinal histomorphometry; however, it enhances immune responses and intestinal quality.
This study was performed to evaluate the effects of the association of different digestible arginine and phytogenic additive dietary levels on performance and health status of brown-egg layers. In this study, a total of 504 33-week-old Hisex Brown layers were distributed into a completely randomized experimental design to a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (dietary digestible arginine levels: 880, 968, 1056, or 1144 mg/kg of feed × phytogenic additive levels: 0, 100, and 200 mg/kg of feed) with six replicate cages of seven birds per cage. The phytogenic additive was composed of extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia (40%), Astragalus membranaceus lipopolysaccharides (20%), cinnamon, and grape seed (20%). Feed intake was reduced when diets containing 1056 mg of arginine were supplemented with 100 or 200 mg phytogenic additive per kg. Feed conversion ratio was improved when diets were supplemented with 100 mg of phytogenic additive or with 1056 mg of arginine per kg of feed. Egg mass was increased when diets were supplemented with 1056 mg arginine per kg of feed. Arginine supplementation quadratically increased albumen percentage and reduced yolk percentage. Higher arginine and phytogenic additive levels reduced heterophyl:lymphocyte ratio and blood uric acid, total cholesterol, very-low density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels. Dietary supplementation of 100 mg of phytogenic additive associated with high arginine levels increased nitric oxide production by peritoneal macrophages and 1056 mg of arginine increased antibodies titers against Newcastle disease virus. Blood and intestinal malonaldehyde levels were reduced when 200 mg of the phytogenic additive was added. Dietary supplementation of 968 mg of arginine or 100 mg of a phytogenic additive (40% Baccharis dracunculifolia, 20% Astragalus membranaceus, 20% cinnamon, and 20% grape seed extracts) per kilogram of diet improves the feed conversion ratio and associated inclusion of 1144 mg of arginine and 100 mg of phytogenic additive per kilogram of diet improves immune responses and health status of brown-egg layers.
ABSTRACT. This study evaluated the effect of multienzyme complexes (EC1 and EC2) in low nutritional density diets on performance and economic viability of broilers. A total of 840 day-old chicks were assigned to 7 treatments, distributed in a completely randomized design: (1) PC: positive control, basal diet formulated to meet nutritional requirements; (2) NC1: negative control, reduced energy and nutrient density diet without enzymes; (3) NC1+EC1; (4) NC2: negative control, diet formulated with 7% over-estimated crude protein and amino acids of soybean meal without enzymes; (5) NC2+EC2; (6) NC3: negative control, reduced energy and nutrient density diet and over-estimation of crude protein and amino acids of soybean meal; (7) NC3+EC1+EC2. Feeding NC1 or NC3 impaired feed conversion ratio at 7, 21 and 42 days, and NC2 at 21 days. Inclusion of EC2 in NC2 diet improved feed conversion ratio and kept it similar to basal diets from 1 to 21 days. Association of EC1 with EC2 in NC3 diet did not improve performance. In summary, inclusion of EC2 in diets with reduced nutrient density keep feed conversion ratio similar to basal diets from 1 to 21 days but does not improve performance of broiler chicken from 1 to 42 days post-hatch.Keywords: exogenous enzymes, poultry, enzyme complexes.Desempenho e viabilidade econômica com utilização de complexos enzimáticos em dietas para frangos de corte RESUMO. Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de complexos enzimáticos (CE1 e CE2) em dietas com níveis reduzidos sobre desempenho e viabilidade econômica de frangos. Foram utilizados 840 pintos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições: 1) controle positivo (CP), dieta formulada para atender às exigências nutricionais; 2) controle negativo 1 (CN1), dieta com níveis nutricionais reduzidos; 3) CN1+CE1; 4) CN2: dieta com proteína e aminoácidos do farelo de soja valorizados em 7%; 5) CN2+CE2; 6) CN3: dieta com níveis reduzidos, e farelo de soja valorizado em 7% para proteína e aminoácidos; 7) CN3+CE1+CE2. A conversão alimentar foi maior em aves que receberam dietas CN1 ou CN3 aos sete, 21 e 42 dias, e CN2 aos 21 dias. A inclusão de CE2 na dieta CN2 melhorou a conversão alimentar em relação a CN2, tornando-a semelhante à de aves alimentadas com dieta CP aos 21 dias. A associação de CE1+CE2 na dieta CN3 não favoreceu o desempenho. Portanto, o uso de complexo enzimático (CE2) em dieta com níveis reduzidos mantém a conversão alimentar similar à de aves recebendo dieta-padrão no período de um a 21 dias, porém, no período de um a 42 dias, não melhora o desempenho de frangos.Palavras-chave: enzimas exógenas, aves, complexos multienzimáticos.
Abstract:We investigated the effects of a combination of protease, xylanase, and phytase in maize-or sorghum-based diets for broilers. Two experiments were conducted with male chicks randomly distributed in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three replacement levels of maize with sorghum (0%, 50%, and 100%) with or without enzymes. In the first trial, 1152 chicks were allotted to 36 floor pens to determine performance, relative organ weight, and litter moisture. A second trial was performed with 150 and 120 chicks allotted in 30 cages with five and four broilers per cage to determine nutrient and energy utilization from 11 to 21 d and from 25 to 35 d, respectively. Enzyme supplementation improved body-weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Total maize replacement with sorghum compromised body-weight gain from 1 to 14 d and from 1 to 35 d. Nitrogen retention was reduced by partial and total maize replacement with sorghum at starter phase and by total replacement at grower phase. Enzyme supplementation improved nitrogen retention at starter phase and apparent metabolizable energy at starter and grower phases. Therefore, partial maize replacement with sorghum is viable and on top application of an enzyme blend containing protease, xylanase, and phytase improves performance and nutrient retention of broilers.Key words: maize, sorghum, exogenous enzymes, nutrient retention, broiler chicken.Résumé : Nous avons examiné les effets d'une combinaison de protéases, xylanases et phytases dans les diètes à base de maïs ou de sorgho chez les poulets à griller. Deux expériences ont été effectuées chez des poussins mâles distribués de façon aléatoire dans un design factoriel 3 × 2 avec trois niveaux de remplacement du maïs par le sorgho (0 %, 50 % et 100 %) avec ou sans enzymes. Dans la première étude, 1152 poussins ont été alloués à 36 enclos au sol pour déterminer la performance, le poids relatif des organes et l'humidité contenue dans la litière. La deuxième étude a été effectuée avec 150 et 120 poussins attribués à 30 cages avec cinq et quatre poulets par cage pour déterminer l'utilisation des éléments nutritifs et de l'énergie des jours 11 à 21 et des jours 25 à 35, respectivement. Les suppléments d'enzymes ont amélioré le gain de poids ainsi que l'indice de consommation. Le remplacement total du maïs par le sorgho a compris le gain de poids des jours 1 à 14 et des jours 1 à 35. La rétention d'azote a été réduit par le remplacement partiel ou total du maïs par le sorgho dans la phase initiale ainsi que par le remplacement total dans la phase de croissance. Les suppléments d'enzymes ont amélioré la rétention d'azote dans la phase initiale et l'énergie métabolisable apparente corrigé pendant les phases initiales et de croissance. Donc, le remplacement partiel du maïs par le sorgho est une solution viable et l'application d'un mélange d'enzymes contenant des protéases, xylanases et phytases améliore la performance et la rétention des éléments nutritifs chez les poulets à griller. [Traduit par la Rédaction]
Turnover do carbono em sangue e plasma, nas fases crescimento e postura, de codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
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