Isoliensinine (isolie) is an alkaloid produced by the edible plant Nelumbo nucifera. Here, we unveiled that isolie was able to provoke HepG2, Huh-7, and H22 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis. Isolie decreased NF-κB activity and constitutive phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 subunit at Ser536 in HCC cells. Overexpression of p65 Ser536 phosphorylation mimics abrogated isolie-mediated HCC cell apoptosis. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of isolie inhibited the growth of Huh-7 xenografts in nude mice. Additionally, isolie given by both intraperitoneal injection and gavage diminished the proliferation of transplanted H22 cells in Kunming mice. Reduced tumor growth in vivo was associated with inhibited p65 phosphorylation at Ser536 and declined NF-κB activity in tumor tissues. Finally, we revealed that isolie was bioavailable in the blood of mice and exhibited no detectable toxic effects on tumor-bearing mice. Our data provided strong evidence for the anti-HCC effect of isolie.
We have investigated the antidiabetic effect and mechanism of methanolic extract of Berberis julianae Schneid. (BJSME) in STZ induced Type 2 diabetes mellitus mice. T2DM mice were induced by high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ). BJSME was orally administrated at the doses of 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg/d, for 21 days. Metformin was used as positive control drug. Food intake, body weight, plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, insulin, and blood-lipid content were measured. The effects of BJSME on the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in L6 myotubes and the GLUT4 protein expression in skeletal muscle as well as phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and muscle were examined. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that BJSME increased GLUT4 translocation by 1.8-fold and BJSME significantly improved the oral glucose tolerance and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of serum and reduced body weight, glucose, and other related blood-lipid contents. The BJSME treatment also stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK. Thus, BJSME seems to possess promising beneficial effects for the treatment of T2DM with the possible mechanism via stimulating AMPK activity.
Astragalin (ASG) can be found in a variety of food components. ASG exhibits cytotoxic effects on several different types of malignant cells. However, its effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained to be fully elucidated. Here, we revealed that ASG remarkably suppressed the proliferation of HCC cells. In HCC cells, ASG inhibited glucose glycolysis and promoted oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in a surge of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mechanistically, ASG suppressed the expression of hexokinase 2 (HK2). This event was indispensible for ASG-mediated metabolic reprogramming, ROS accumulation, and subsequent growth arrest. Our further investigations unveiled that ASG repressed HK2 expression via increasing miR-125b. In vivo experiments showed that gavage of ASG decreased the proliferation of Huh-7 HCC xenografts in nude mice and inhibited the growth of transplanted H22 HCC cells in Kunming mice. Declined HCC tumor growth in vivo was associated with boosted miR-125b and reduced expression of HK2 in tumor tissues. Collectively, our results demonstrated that ASG is able to suppress the proliferation of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of HK2 through upregulating miR-125b and subsequent metabolic reprogramming is implicated in the antiproliferative effects of ASG on HCC cells.
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