The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines Committee and key Canadian opinion leaders believed there was a need for up to date guidelines that used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system of evidence assessment for patients who undergo noncardiac surgery. Strong recommendations included: 1) measuring brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal fragment of proBNP (NT-proBNP) before surgery to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation in patients who are 65 years of age or older, are 45-64 years of age with significant cardiovascular disease, or have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥ 1; 2) against performing preoperative resting echocardiography, coronary computed tomography angiography, exercise or cardiopulmonary exercise testing, or pharmacological stress echocardiography or radionuclide imaging to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation; 3) against the initiation or continuation of acetylsalicylic acid for the prevention of perioperative cardiac events, except in patients with a recent coronary artery stent or who will undergo carotid endarterectomy; 4) against α agonist or β-blocker initiation within 24 hours before surgery; 5) withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker starting 24 hours before surgery; 6) facilitating smoking cessation before surgery; 7) measuring daily troponin for 48 to 72 hours after surgery in patients with an elevated NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery or if there is no NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery, in those who have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥1, age 45-64 years with significant cardiovascular disease, or age 65 years or older; and 8) initiating of long-term acetylsalicylic acid and statin therapy in patients who suffer myocardial injury/infarction after surgery.
Healthcare workers involved in aerosol-generating procedures, such as tracheal intubation, may be at elevated risk of acquiring COVID-19. However, the magnitude of this risk is unknown. We conducted a prospective international multicentre cohort study recruiting healthcare workers participating in tracheal intubation of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Information on tracheal intubation episodes, personal protective equipment use and subsequent provider health status was collected via self-reporting. The primary endpoint was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis or new symptoms requiring selfisolation or hospitalisation after a tracheal intubation episode. Cox regression analysis examined associations between the primary endpoint and healthcare worker characteristics, procedure-related factors and personal protective equipment use. Between 23 March and 2 June 2020, 1718 healthcare workers from 503 hospitals in 17 countries reported 5148 tracheal intubation episodes. The overall incidence of the primary endpoint was 10.7% over a median (IQR [range]) follow-up of 32 (18-48 [0-116]) days. The cumulative incidence within 7, 14
promise was doubtful and its validity unlikely to have been vetted. Predatory journals are a global threat. They accept articles for publication-along with authors' fees-without performing promised quality checks for issues such as plagiarism or ethical approval. Naive readers are not the only victims. Many researchers have been duped into submitting to predatory journals, in which their work can be overlooked. One study that focused on 46,000 researchers based in Italy found that about 5% of them published in such outlets 1. A separate analysis suggests predatory publishers collect millions of dollars in publication fees that are ultimately paid out by funders such as the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) 2. One barrier to combating predatory publishing is, in our view, the lack of an agreed definition. By analogy, consider the historical criteria for deciding whether an abnormal bulge in the aorta, the largest artery in the body, could be deemed an aneurysm-a dangerous W hen 'Jane' turned to alternative medicine, she had already exhausted radiotherapy, chemotherapy and other standard treatments for breast cancer. Her alternative-medicine practitioner shared an article about a therapy involving vitamin infusions. To her and her practitioner, it seemed to be authentic grounds for hope. But when Jane showed the article to her son-in-law (one of the authors of this Comment), he realized it came from a predatory journal-meaning its Leading scholars and publishers from ten countries have agreed a definition of predatory publishing that can protect scholarship. It took 12 hours of discussion, 18 questions and 3 rounds to reach.
At a population level, preoperative frailty-defining diagnoses were associated with a significantly increased risk of 1-year mortality that was particularly notable in the early postoperative period, in younger patients, and after joint arthroplasty.
Purpose: The purpose of this structured, evidence-based, clinical update was to identify the best evidence comparing general and regional anesthesia and their influence on delirium or cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in the postoperative period. Source:In June 2005 a structured search of MEDLINE from 1966 to present using OVID software was undertaken. Medical subject headings and textwords describing both delirium and POCD were employed. OVID's Therapy (sensitivity) algorithm was used to maximize the detection of randomized trials. The bibliographies of eligible publications were hand-searched to identify trials not identified in the electronic search. Publications enrolling children were excluded. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendations were scored using Centre for Evidence Based Medicine criteria. Principal findings:A total of 18 unique randomized controlled trials were identified: two evaluating delirium; ten evaluating POCD; and six evaluating both. Outcomes for delirium were abstracted from eight trials that enrolled 765 patients (387 regional anesthesia; 378 general anesthesia). Outcomes for POCD were identified from 16 trials that enrolled 2,708 patients (1,313 regional anesthesia; 1,395 general anesthesia). Both delirium (11-43%) and POCD (15-25%) were relatively common in trials actively seeking these outcomes. Consistent Level 2b evidence suggests no significant increase in delirium in patients receiving general anesthesia compared with those receiving regional anesthesia. Similarly, consistent Level 1 evidence indicates that exposure to general anesthesia is not significantly associated with POCD. Conclusion:Available randomized controlled trials suggest that there is no significant difference in the incidence of delirium or POCD when general anesthesia and regional anesthesia are compared. Objectif Source : En juin 2005, une recherche structurée a été entreprise dans MEDLINE, de 1966 à nos jours, en utilisant le logiciel OVID. Les vedettes-matières et les textes décrivant le délire et le DCPO ont été utilisés. Un algorithme thérapeutique (sensibilité) tiré de OVID a servi à optimaliser la détection d'études randomisées. Les bibliographies des études admissibles ont été fouillées manuellement pour découvrir les études non repérées dans la recherche électronique. Les recherches portant sur des enfants ont été exclues. Les niveaux d'évidence et les degrés de recommandations ont été évalués selon les critères du Centre for Evidence Based Medicine. Constatations principales
Older people with frailty are significantly more likely to die or experience a new patient-reported disability after surgery. Clinicians performing frailty assessments before surgery should consider the CFS over the mFI as accuracy was similar, but ease of use and feasibility were higher.
IntroductionDespite recent advances in the management of septic shock, mortality remains unacceptably high. Earlier initiation of key therapies including appropriate antimicrobials and fluid resuscitation appears to reduce the mortality in this condition. This study examined whether early initiation of vasopressor therapy is associated with improved survival in fluid therapy-refractory septic shock.MethodsUtilizing a well-established database, relevant information including duration of time to vasopressor administration following the initial documentation of recurrent/persistent hypotension associated with septic shock was assessed in 8,670 adult patients from 28 ICUs in Canada, the United States of America, and Saudi Arabia. The primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary endpoints were length of ICU and hospital stay as well as duration of ventilator support and vasopressor dependence. Analysis involved multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis.ResultsIn total, 8,640 patients met the definition of septic shock with time of vasopressor/inotropic initiation documented. Of these, 6,514 were suitable for analysis. The overall unadjusted hospital mortality rate was 53%. Independent mortality correlates included liver failure (odds ratio (OR) 3.46, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.67 to 4.48), metastatic cancer (OR 1.63, CI, 1.32 to 2.01), AIDS (OR 1.91, CI, 1.29 to 2.49), hematologic malignancy (OR 1.88, CI, 1.46 to 2.41), neutropenia (OR 1.78, CI, 1.27 to 2.49) and chronic hypertension (OR 0.62 CI, 0.52 to 0.73). Delay of initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy (OR 1.07/hr, CI, 1.06 to 1.08), age (OR 1.03/yr, CI, 1.02 to 1.03), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II Score (OR 1.11/point, CI, 1.10 to 1.12) were also found to be significant independent correlates of mortality. After adjustment, only a weak correlation between vasopressor delay and hospital mortality was found (adjusted OR 1.02/hr, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.03, P <0.001). This weak effect was entirely driven by the group of patients with the longest delays (>14.1 hours). There was no significant relationship of vasopressor initiation delay to duration of vasopressor therapy (P = 0.313) and only a trend to longer duration of ventilator support (P = 0.055) among survivors.ConclusionMarked delays in initiation of vasopressor/inotropic therapy are associated with a small increase in mortality risk in patients with septic shock.
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